[ Mahāvagga Contents | Mv IV Contents ]

IV pavāraṇākkhandhako

The Invitation Khandhaka [BMC]

120. aphāsukavihāro (Mv.IV.1.1)

Staying Uncomfortably [Mv.X.4.2]

[224] tena samayena buddho bhagavā sāvatthiyaṁ viharati jetavane anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme.

At that time the Buddha, the Blessed One, was staying in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Monastery.

tena kho pana samayena sambahulā sandiṭṭhā sambhattā bhikkhū kosalesu janapadesu aññatarasmiṁ āvāse vassaṁ upagacchiṁsu.

And at that time several monks—acquaintances, intimates—entered the Rains in a certain residence in the Kosalan countryside.

athakho tesaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ etadahosi kena nu kho mayaṁ upāyena samaggā sammodamānā avivadamānā phāsukaṁ vassaṁ vaseyyāma na ca piṇḍakena kilameyyāmāti.

Then the thought occurred to them, “By what strategy could we stay for the Rains comfortably—harmonious, cordial, without dispute—and not have difficulty in going for alms?”

(Mv.IV.1.2) athakho tesaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ etadahosi sace kho mayaṁ aññamaññaṁ neva ālapeyyāma na sallapeyyāma

The thought occurred to them, “If we were to neither speak to nor converse with one another;

yo paṭhamaṁ gāmato piṇḍāya paṭikkameyya so āsanaṁ paññāpeyya pādodakaṁ pādapīṭhaṁ pādakathalikaṁ upanikkhipeyya avakkārapātiṁ dhovitvā upaṭṭhāpeyya pānīyaṁ paribhojanīyaṁ upaṭṭhāpeyya

“and whoever returns first from going to the village for alms would lay out the seats; set out water for washing the feet, a foot-stool, and a foot-washing block; wash the refuse bucket and set it out; and set out drinking water and washing water;

(Mv.IV.1.3) yo pacchā gāmato piṇḍāya paṭikkameyya sacassa bhuttāvaseso sace ākaṅkheyya bhuñjeyya no ce ākaṅkheyya apaharite vā chaḍḍeyya appāṇake vā udake opilāpeyya

“and whoever returns afterwards from going to the village for alms would eat the left-overs—if there are any and if he wants to—and if not, he would throw them out in a place where there are no crops, or dump them into water without living beings in it;

so āsanaṁ uddhareyya pādodakaṁ pādapīṭhaṁ pādakathalikaṁ paṭisāmeyya avakkārapātiṁ dhovitvā paṭisāmeyya pānīyaṁ paribhojanīyaṁ paṭisāmeyya bhattaggaṁ sammajjeyya

“and he would pick up the seats; put away the water for washing the feet, foot-stool, and foot-washing block; wash and put away the refuse bucket; put away the drinking water and washing water; and sweep the meal hall;

(Mv.IV.1.4) yo passeyya pānīyaghaṭaṁ vā paribhojanīyaghaṭaṁ vā vaccaghaṭaṁ vā rittaṁ tucchaṁ so upaṭṭhāpeyya sacassa hoti avisayhaṁ hatthavikārena dutiyaṁ āmantetvā hatthavilaṅghakena upaṭṭhāpeyya na tveva tappaccayā vācaṁ bhindeyya

“and whoever sees that the drinking water pitcher, washing water pitcher, or bathroom pitcher is low or empty would have it refilled—if it’s too much for him, he would call another by waving, using hand signals, and he would have it refilled, thus, he wouldn’t, for that reason, break out into speech—

evaṁ kho mayaṁ samaggā sammodamānā avivadamānā phāsukaṁ vassaṁ vaseyyāma na ca piṇḍakena kilameyyāmāti.

“in that way, we would stay for the Rains comfortably—harmonious, cordial, without dispute—and we wouldn’t have difficulty in going for alms.”

(Mv.IV.1.5) athakho te bhikkhū aññamaññaṁ neva ālapiṁsu na sallapiṁsu

So the monks didn’t speak to or converse with one another.

yo paṭhamaṁ gāmato piṇḍāya paṭikkamati so āsanaṁ paññāpeti pādodakaṁ pādapīṭhaṁ pādakathalikaṁ upanikkhipati avakkārapātiṁ dhovitvā upaṭṭhāpeti pānīyaṁ paribhojanīyaṁ upaṭṭhāpeti

Whoever returned first from going to the village for alms laid out the seats; set out water for washing the feet, a foot-stool, and a foot-washing block; washed the refuse bucket and set it out; and set out drinking water and washing water.

(Mv.IV.1.6) yo pacchā gāmato piṇḍāya paṭikkamati sace hoti bhuttāvaseso sace ākaṅkhati bhuñjati no ce ākaṅkhati apaharite vā chaḍḍeti appāṇake vā udake opilāpeti

Whoever returned afterwards from going to the village for alms ate the left-overs—if there were any and if he wanted to—and if not, he threw them out in a place where there were no crops, or dumped them into water without living beings in it.

so āsanaṁ uddharati pādodakaṁ pādapīṭhaṁ pādakathalikaṁ paṭisāmeti avakkārapātiṁ dhovitvā paṭisāmeti pānīyaṁ paribhojanīyaṁ paṭisāmeti bhattaggaṁ sammajjati

He picked up the seats; put away the water for washing the feet, foot-stool, and foot-washing block; washed and put away the refuse bucket; put away the drinking water and washing water; and swept the meal hall.

(Mv.IV.1.7) yo passati pānīyaghaṭaṁ vā paribhojanīyaghaṭaṁ vā vaccaghaṭaṁ vā rittaṁ tucchaṁ so upaṭṭhāpeti sacassa hoti avisayhaṁ hatthavikārena dutiyaṁ āmantetvā hatthavilaṅghakena upaṭṭhāpeti

Whoever saw that the drinking water pitcher, washing water pitcher, or bathroom pitcher was low or empty had it refilled. If it was too much for him, calling another by waving—using hand signals—he had it refilled.

na tveva tappaccayā vācaṁ bhindati.

He didn’t, for that reason, break out into speech.

(Mv.IV.1.8) [225] āciṇṇaṁ kho panetaṁ vassaṁ vutthānaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ bhagavantaṁ dassanāya upasaṅkamituṁ.

It was customary for monks who had completed the Rains to go to see the Blessed One.

athakho te bhikkhū vassaṁ vutthā temāsaccayena senāsanaṁ saṁsāmetvā pattacīvaramādāya yena sāvatthī tena pakkamiṁsu

So the monks, after the passing of three months, having completed the Rains, put their lodgings in order and—taking their robes and bowls—set out on a wandering tour toward Sāvatthī.

anupubbena yena sāvatthī jetavanaṁ anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāmo yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkamiṁsu upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā ekamantaṁ nisīdiṁsu.

Wandering by stages, they arrived at Sāvatthī, went to Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Monastery, and went to the Blessed One. On arrival, they bowed and sat to one side.

āciṇṇaṁ kho panetaṁ buddhānaṁ bhagavantānaṁ āgantukehi bhikkhūhi saddhiṁ paṭisammodituṁ.

It is customary for Buddhas, Blessed Ones, to exchange pleasantries with incoming monks.

(Mv.IV.1.9) athakho bhagavā te bhikkhū etadavoca kacci bhikkhave khamanīyaṁ kacci yāpanīyaṁ kacci samaggā sammodamānā avivadamānā phāsukaṁ vassaṁ vasittha na ca piṇḍakena kilamitthāti.

Then the Blessed One said to the monks, “Is it agreeable, monks? Are you getting by? Did you spend the Rains harmoniously, cordially, without dispute, and not have difficulty in going for alms?”

khamanīyaṁ bhagavā yāpanīyaṁ bhagavā samaggā ca mayaṁ bhante sammodamānā avivadamānā phāsukaṁ vassaṁ vasimhā na ca piṇḍakena kilamimhāti.

“It’s agreeble, O Blessed One. We’re getting by. And we spent the Rains comfortably—harmoniously, cordial, without dispute—and we didn’t have difficulty in going for alms.”

(Mv.IV.1.10) jānantāpi tathāgatā pucchanti jānantāpi na pucchanti

Knowing, Tathāgatas ask. Knowing, they don’t ask.

kālaṁ viditvā pucchanti kālaṁ viditvā na pucchanti

Considering the time, they ask. Considering the time, they don’t ask.

atthasañhitaṁ tathāgatā pucchanti no anatthasañhitaṁ anatthasañhite setughāto tathāgatānaṁ.

Tathāgatas ask in a way that is connected to the goal /welfare, not in a way unconnected to the goal/welfare. Tathāgatas have cut off the bridge in reference to things that are unconnected to the goal/welfare.

dvīhākārehi buddhā bhagavanto bhikkhū paṭipucchanti dhammaṁ vā desessāma sāvakānaṁ vā sikkhāpadaṁ paññāpessāmāti.

Buddhas, Blessed Ones, cross-question monks for two reasons: (thinking,) “I will teach the Dhamma,” or “I will lay down a training rule.”

athakho bhagavā te bhikkhū etadavoca yathākathaṁ pana tumhe bhikkhave samaggā sammodamānā avivadamānā phāsukaṁ vassaṁ vasittha na ca piṇḍakena kilamitthāti.

Then the Blessed One said to the monks, “But how, monks, did you spend the Rains comfortably, harmoniously, cordially, without dispute, and not have difficulty in going for alms?”

(Mv.IV.1.11) idha mayaṁ bhante sambahulā sandiṭṭhā sambhattā bhikkhū kosalesu janapadesu aññatarasmiṁ āvāse vassaṁ upagacchimhā

“Here, lord, we several monks—acquaintances, intimates—entered the Rains in a certain residence in the Kosalan countryside.

tesaṁ no bhante amhākaṁ etadahosi kena nu kho mayaṁ upāyena samaggā sammodamānā avivadamānā phāsukaṁ vassaṁ vaseyyāma na ca piṇḍakena kilameyyāmāti

“The thought occurred to us, ‘By what strategy could we stay for the Rains comfortably—harmonious, cordial, without dispute—and not have difficulty in going for alms?’

tesaṁ no bhante amhākaṁ etadahosi sace kho mayaṁ aññamaññaṁ neva ālapeyyāma na sallapeyyāma

“The thought occurred to us, ‘If we were to neither speak to or converse with one another;

yo paṭhamaṁ gāmato piṇḍāya paṭikkameyya so āsanaṁ paññāpeyya pādodakaṁ pādapīṭhaṁ pādakathalikaṁ upanikkhipeyya avakkārapātiṁ dhovitvā upaṭṭhāpeyya pānīyaṁ paribhojanīyaṁ upaṭṭhāpeyya

“‘and whoever returns first from going to the village for alms would lay out the seats; set out water for washing the feet, a foot-stool, and a foot-washing block; wash the refuse bucket and set it out; and set out drinking water and washing water;

yo pacchā gāmato piṇḍāya paṭikkameyya sacassa bhuttāvaseso sace ākaṅkheyya bhuñjeyya no ce ākaṅkheyya apaharite vā chaḍḍeyya appāṇake vā udake opilāpeyya

“‘and whoever returns afterwards from going to the village for alms would eat the left-overs—if there are any and if he wants to—and if not, he would throw them out in a place where there are no crops, or dump them into water without living beings in it;

so āsanaṁ uddhareyya pādodakaṁ pādapīṭhaṁ pādakathalikaṁ paṭisāmeyya avakkārapātiṁ dhovitvā paṭisāmeyya pānīyaṁ paribhojanīyaṁ paṭisāmeyya bhattaggaṁ sammajjeyya

“‘and he would pick up the seats; put away the water for washing the feet, foot-stool, and foot-washing block; wash and put away the refuse bucket; put away the drinking water and washing water; and sweep the meal hall;

yo passeyya pānīyaghaṭaṁ vā paribhojanīyaghaṭaṁ vā vaccaghaṭaṁ vā rittaṁ tucchaṁ so upaṭṭhāpeyya sacassa hoti avisayhaṁ hatthavikārena dutiyaṁ āmantetvā hatthavilaṅghakena upaṭṭhāpeyya

“‘and whoever sees that the drinking water pitcher, washing water pitcher, or bathroom pitcher is low or empty would have it refilled—if it’s too much for him, he would call another by waving, using hand signals, and he would have it refilled,

na tveva tappaccayā vācaṁ bhindeyya

“‘thus, he wouldn’t, for that reason, break out into speech—

evaṁ kho mayaṁ samaggā sammodamānā avivadamānā phāsukaṁ vassaṁ vaseyyāma na ca piṇḍakena kilameyyāmāti

“‘in that way, we would stay for the Rains comfortably—harmonious, cordial, without dispute—and we wouldn’t have difficulty in going for alms.’

athakho mayaṁ bhante aññamaññaṁ neva ālapimhā na sallapimhā

“So, lord, we didn’t speak to or converse with one another.

yo paṭhamaṁ gāmato piṇḍāya paṭikkamati so āsanaṁ paññāpeti pādodakaṁ pādapīṭhaṁ pādakathalikaṁ upanikkhipati avakkārapātiṁ dhovitvā upaṭṭhāpeti pānīyaṁ paribhojanīyaṁ upaṭṭhāpeti

“Whoever returned first from going to the village for alms laid out the seats; set out water for washing the feet, a foot-stool, and a foot-washing block; washed the refuse bucket and set it out; and set out drinking water and washing water.

yo pacchā gāmato piṇḍāya paṭikkamati sace hoti bhuttāvaseso sace ākaṅkhati bhuñjati no ce ākaṅkhati apaharite vā chaḍḍeti appāṇake vā udake opilāpeti

“Whoever returned afterwards from going to the village for alms ate the left-overs—if there were any and if he wanted to—and if not, he threw them out in a place where there were no crops, or dumped them into water without living beings in it.

so āsanaṁ uddharati pādodakaṁ pādapīṭhaṁ pādakathalikaṁ paṭisāmeti avakkārapātiṁ dhovitvā paṭisāmeti pānīyaṁ paribhojanīyaṁ paṭisāmeti bhattaggaṁ sammajjati

“He picked up the seats; put away the water for washing the feet, foot-stool, and foot-washing block; washed and put away the refuse bucket; put away the drinking water and washing water; and swept the meal hall.

yo passati pānīyaghaṭaṁ vā paribhojanīyaghaṭaṁ vā vaccaghaṭaṁ vā rittaṁ tucchaṁ so upaṭṭhāpeti sacassa hoti avisayhaṁ hatthavikārena dutiyaṁ āmantetvā hatthavilaṅghakena upaṭṭhāpeti

“Whoever saw that the drinking water pitcher, washing water pitcher, or bathroom pitcher was low or empty had it refilled. If it was too much for him, calling another by waving—using hand signals—he had it refilled.

na tveva tappaccayā vācaṁ bhindati

“He didn’t, for that reason, break out into speech.

evaṁ kho mayaṁ bhante samaggā sammodamānā avivadamānā phāsukaṁ vassaṁ vasimhā na ca piṇḍakena kilamimhāti.

“Lord, that’s how we spent the Rains comfortably, harmoniously, cordially, without dispute, and didn’t have difficulty in going for alms.”

(Mv.IV.1.12) [226] athakho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi aphāsuññeva kirame bhikkhave moghapurisā vutthā samānā phāsumha vutthāti paṭijānanti

Then the Blessed One addressed the monks, “These worthless men, having spent the Rains uncomfortably, claim to have spent the Rains comfortably.

pasusaṁvāsaññeva kirame bhikkhave moghapurisā vutthā samānā phāsumha vutthāti paṭijānanti

“Having spent the Rains in cattle-like affiliation, these worthless men claim to have spent the Rains comfortably.

eḷakasaṁvāsaññeva kirame bhikkhave moghapurisā vutthā samānā phāsumha vutthāti paṭijānanti

“Having spent the Rains in sheep-like affiliation, these worthless men claim to have spent the Rains comfortably.

pamattasaṁvāsaññeva kirame bhikkhave moghapurisā vutthā samānā phāsumha vutthāti paṭijānanti

“Having spent the Rains in heedless-affiliation, these worthless men claim to have spent the Rains comfortably.

kathaṁ hi nāmime bhikkhave moghapurisā mūgabbattaṁ titthiyasamādānaṁ samādiyissanti

“How can these worthless men undertake a vow of dumb silence, the undertaking of sectarians?

(Mv.IV.1.13) netaṁ bhikkhave appasannānaṁ vā pasādāya .pe.

“Monks, this neither inspires faith in the faithless …”

vigarahitvā dhammiṁ kathaṁ katvā bhikkhū āmantesi

Having rebuked him and given a Dhamma talk, he addressed the monks:

na bhikkhave mūgabbattaṁ titthiyasamādānaṁ samādiyitabbaṁ yo samādiyeyya āpatti dukkaṭassa.

“The vow of dumb silence, the undertaking of sectarians, is not to be undertaken. Whoever should undertake it: an offense of wrong doing1. [BMC]

1. The difference between this story and that in Mv X, referenced at the beginning of the section, is that in this case they refrained from speech because of a vow, whereas in the other case, they used their discernment in deciding when it is skillful to speak and when it is not.

anujānāmi bhikkhave vassaṁ vutthānaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ tīhi ṭhānehi pavāretuṁ diṭṭhena vā sutena vā parisaṅkāya vā.

“Monks, I allow that bhikkhus who have spent the Rains invite (one another) with respect to three things: what is seen, what is heard, and what is suspected.

sā vo bhavissati aññamaññānulomatā āpattivuṭṭhānatā vinayapurekkhāratā.

“That will be for your mutual conformity, for your arising out of offenses, for your esteem for the Vinaya.

(Mv.IV.1.14) evañca pana bhikkhave pavāretabbaṁ.

“And, monks, you should invite like this:

byattena bhikkhunā paṭibalena saṅgho ñāpetabbo

“An experienced and competent monk should inform the Saṅgha:

suṇātu me bhante saṅgho ajja pavāraṇā.

“‘Venerable sirs, may the Saṅgha listen to me. Today is the Invitation.

yadi saṅghassa pattakallaṁ saṅgho pavāreyyāti.

“‘If the Saṅgha is ready, it should invite.’

therena bhikkhunā ekaṁsaṁ uttarāsaṅgaṁ karitvā ukkuṭikaṁ nisīditvā añjaliṁ paggahetvā evamassa vacanīyo

“The senior(-most) monk should arrange his upper robe over one shoulder, sit in the kneeling position with his hands placed palm-to-palm over the heart and say,

saṅghaṁ āvuso pavāremi diṭṭhena vā sutena vā parisaṅkāya vā vadantu maṁ āyasmanto anukampaṁ upādāya passanto paṭikarissāmi

“‘Friends, I invite the Saṅgha to speak to me—out of sympathy—with regard to what is seen, heard, or suspected1. On seeing (the offense), I will make amends.

1. The passage from ‘saṅghaṁ …’ to ‘… upādāya’ could be broken at either of two places: ‘saṅghaṁ āvuso pavāremi. diṭṭhena …’ or ‘saṅghaṁ … parisaṅkāya vā. vadantu maṁ …’ yielding, respectively, ‘Friends, I invite the Saṅgha. With regard to what is seen …’ and ‘Friends, I invite the Saṅgha in regard to what is seen, heard, or suspected. May you speak …’ But in terms of the meaning, it functions as a whole: He is inviting the Saṅgha to speak to him with regard to what is seen, heard, or suspected.

dutiyampi āvuso saṅghaṁ pavāremi diṭṭhena vā sutena vā parisaṅkāya vā vadantu maṁ āyasmanto anukampaṁ upādāya passanto paṭikarissāmi

“‘A second time, friends, I invite the Saṅgha to speak to me—out of sympathy—with regard to what is seen, heard, or suspected. On seeing (the offense), I will make amends.

tatiyampi āvuso saṅghaṁ pavāremi diṭṭhena vā sutena vā parisaṅkāya vā vadantu maṁ āyasmanto anukampaṁ upādāya passanto paṭikarissāmīti.

“‘A third time, friends, I invite the Saṅgha to speak to me—out of sympathy—with regard to what is seen, heard, or suspected. On seeing (the offense), I will make amends.’

navakena bhikkhunā ekaṁsaṁ uttarāsaṅgaṁ karitvā ukkuṭikaṁ nisīditvā añjaliṁ paggahetvā evamassa vacanīyo

“A junior monk should arrange his upper robe over one shoulder, sit in the kneeling position with his hands placed palm-to-palm over the heart and say,

saṅghaṁ bhante pavāremi diṭṭhena vā sutena vā parisaṅkāya vā vadantu maṁ āyasmanto anukampaṁ upādāya passanto paṭikarissāmi

“‘Venerable sirs, I invite the Saṅgha to speak to me—out of sympathy—with regard to what is seen, heard, or suspected. On seeing (the offense), I will make amends.

dutiyampi bhante saṅghaṁ pavāremi diṭṭhena vā sutena vā parisaṅkāya vā vadantu maṁ āyasmanto anukampaṁ upādāya passanto paṭikarissāmi

“‘A second time, venerable sirs, I invite the Saṅgha to speak to me—out of sympathy—with regard to what is seen, heard, or suspected. On seeing (the offense), I will make amends.

tatiyampi bhante saṅghaṁ pavāremi diṭṭhena vā sutena vā parisaṅkāya vā vadantu maṁ āyasmanto anukampaṁ upādāya passanto paṭikarissāmīti.

“‘A third time, venerable sirs, I invite the Saṅgha to speak to me—out of sympathy—with regard to what is seen, heard, or suspected. On seeing (the offense), I will make amends.’”

(Mv.IV.2.1) [227] tena kho pana samayena chabbaggiyā bhikkhū theresu bhikkhūsu ukkuṭikaṁ nisinnesu pavārayamānesu āsanesu acchanti.

Now on that occasion some Group-of-six monks remained seated while the senior monks, kneeling, were inviting.

ye te bhikkhū appicchā te ujjhāyanti khīyanti vipācenti kathaṁ hi nāma chabbaggiyā bhikkhū theresu bhikkhūsu ukkuṭikaṁ nisinnesu pavārayamānesu āsanesu acchissantīti.

Those monks who were modest criticized and complained and spread it about: “How can the Group-of-six monks remain seated while the senior monks, kneeling, are inviting?”

athakho te bhikkhū bhagavato etamatthaṁ ārocesuṁ.

Then the monks reported the matter to the Blessed One.

saccaṁ kira bhikkhave chabbaggiyā bhikkhū theresu bhikkhūsu ukkuṭikaṁ nisinnesu pavārayamānesu āsanesu acchantīti.

“Is it true, monks, as they say, that the Group-of-six monks remain seated while the senior monks, kneeling, are inviting?”

saccaṁ bhagavāti.

“It’s true, O Blessed One.”

vigarahi buddho bhagavā kathaṁ hi nāma te bhikkhave moghapurisā theresu bhikkhūsu ukkuṭikaṁ nisinnesu pavārayamānesu āsanesu acchissanti netaṁ bhikkhave appasannānaṁ vā pasādāya .pe.

The Buddha, the Blessed One, rebuked them, “How can those worthless men remain seated while the senior monks, kneeling, are inviting? Monks, this neither inspires faith in the faithless …”

vigarahitvā dhammiṁ kathaṁ katvā bhikkhū āmantesi

Having rebuked them and given a Dhamma talk, he addressed the monks:

na bhikkhave theresu bhikkhūsu ukkuṭikaṁ nisinnesu pavārayamānesu āsanesu acchitabbaṁ yo accheyya āpatti dukkaṭassa anujānāmi bhikkhave sabbeheva ukkuṭikaṁ nisinnehi pavāretunti.

“Monks, one should not remain seated while senior bhikkhus, kneeling, are inviting. Whoever should remain seated: an offense of wrong doing. I allow that the invitation be made while all are kneeling.”

(Mv.IV.2.2) tena kho pana samayena aññataro thero jarādubbalo yāva sabbe pavārenti ukkuṭikaṁ nisinno āgamayamāno mucchito papati.

Now on that occasion a certain senior monk, weak from old age, waiting in the kneeling position while all (of the monks) invited, fainted and fell over.

bhagavato etamatthaṁ ārocesuṁ.

They reported the matter to the Blessed One.

anujānāmi bhikkhave tadanantarā ukkuṭikaṁ nisīdituṁ yāva pavāreti pavāretvā āsane nisīditunti.

“Monks, I allow that one remain sitting in the kneeling position until he invites and then to sit down on his seat.”

121. pavāraṇābhedā (Mv.IV.3.1)

Analysis of the Invitation [Mv.II.14.1]

[228] athakho bhikkhūnaṁ etadahosi kati nu kho pavāraṇāti.

Then the thought occurred to the monks, “How many Invitations are there?”

bhagavato etamatthaṁ ārocesuṁ.

They reported the matter to the Blessed One.

dvemā bhikkhave pavāraṇā cātuddasikā paṇṇarasikā ca imā kho bhikkhave dve pavāraṇāti.

“Monks, there are these two Invitations: on the fourteenth and on the fifteenth. These are the two Invitations.”

(Mv.IV.3.2) athakho bhikkhūnaṁ etadahosi kati nu kho pavāraṇākammānīti.

Then the thought occurred to the monks, “How many Invitation transactions are there?”

bhagavato etamatthaṁ ārocesuṁ.

They reported the matter to the Blessed One.

cattārīmāni bhikkhave pavāraṇākammāni adhammena vaggaṁ pavāraṇākammaṁ adhammena samaggaṁ pavāraṇākammaṁ dhammena vaggaṁ pavāraṇākammaṁ dhammena samaggaṁ pavāraṇākammaṁ.

“Monks, there are these four Invitation transactions: a factional Invitation transaction not in accordance with the Dhamma, a united Invitation transaction not in accordance with the Dhamma, a factional Invitation transaction in accordance with the Dhamma, a united Invitation transaction in accordance with the Dhamma.

tatra bhikkhave yadidaṁ adhammena vaggaṁ pavāraṇākammaṁ na bhikkhave evarūpaṁ pavāraṇākammaṁ kātabbaṁ na ca mayā evarūpaṁ pavāraṇākammaṁ anuññātaṁ.

“With regard to that, monks—the factional Invitation transaction not in accordance with the Dhamma—this sort of Invitation transaction should not be done and has not been allowed by me.

tatra bhikkhave yadidaṁ adhammena samaggaṁ pavāraṇākammaṁ na bhikkhave evarūpaṁ pavāraṇākammaṁ kātabbaṁ na ca mayā evarūpaṁ pavāraṇākammaṁ anuññātaṁ.

“With regard to that, monks—the united Invitation transaction not in accordance with the Dhamma—this sort of Invitation transaction should not be done and has not been allowed by me.

tatra bhikkhave yadidaṁ dhammena vaggaṁ pavāraṇākammaṁ na ca bhikkhave evarūpaṁ pavāraṇākammaṁ kātabbaṁ na ca mayā evarūpaṁ pavāraṇākammaṁ anuññātaṁ.

“With regard to that, monks—the factional Invitation transaction in accordance with the Dhamma—this sort of Invitation transaction should not be done and has not been allowed by me.

tatra bhikkhave yadidaṁ dhammena samaggaṁ pavāraṇākammaṁ evarūpaṁ bhikkhave pavāraṇākammaṁ kātabbaṁ evarūpaṁ mayā pavāraṇākammaṁ anuññātaṁ.

“With regard to that, monks—the united Invitation transaction in accordance with the Dhamma—this sort of Invitation transaction may be done and has been allowed by me.

tasmātiha bhikkhave evarūpaṁ pavāraṇākammaṁ karissāma yadidaṁ dhammena samagganti evaṁ hi vo bhikkhave sikkhitabbanti.

“Therefore, monks, ‘We will do this sort of Invitation transaction, namely, united and in accordance with the Dhamma’: That’s how you should train yourselves.”

122. pavāraṇādānānujānanā (Mv.IV.3.3)

The Allowance of Giving the Invitation [BMC Mv.II.22.1]

[229] athakho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi sannipatatha bhikkhave saṅgho pavāressatīti.

Then the Blessed One addressed the monks, “Gather, monks. The Saṅgha will invite.”

evaṁ vutte aññataro bhikkhu bhagavantaṁ etadavoca atthi bhante bhikkhu gilāno so anāgatoti.

When that was said, a certain monk said to the Blessed One, “There is a sick monk, lord. He hasn’t come.”

anujānāmi bhikkhave gilānena bhikkhunā pavāraṇaṁ dātuṁ.

“I allow that a sick monk give his invitation.”

evañca pana bhikkhave dātabbā.

“And, monks, it should be given like this:

tena gilānena bhikkhunā ekaṁ bhikkhuṁ upasaṅkamitvā ekaṁsaṁ uttarāsaṅgaṁ karitvā ukkuṭikaṁ nisīditvā añjaliṁ paggahetvā evamassa vacanīyo pavāraṇaṁ dammi pavāraṇaṁ me hara mamatthāya pavārehīti

“Having arranged his robe over one shoulder, the sick monk should approach one monk, then sit in the kneeling position with his hands placed palm-to-palm over the heart and say, ‘I give (my) invitation. Convey my invitation. Invite on my behalf.’

kāyena viññāpeti vācāya viññāpeti kāyena vācāya viññāpeti dinnā hoti pavāraṇā.

“If he makes this understood by physical gesture, by voice, or by both physical gesture and voice, his invitation is given.

na kāyena viññāpeti na vācāya viññāpeti na kāyena vācāya viññāpeti na dinnā hoti pavāraṇā.

“If he does not make this understood by physical gesture, by voice, or by both physical gesture and voice, his invitation is not given.

(Mv.IV.3.4) evañcetaṁ labhetha iccetaṁ kusalaṁ no ce labhetha so bhikkhave gilāno bhikkhu mañcena vā pīṭhena vā saṅghamajjhe ānetvā pavāretabbaṁ.

“If he manages it, well and good. If not, then, having carried the sick monk into the midst of the Saṅgha on a bed or bench, they should invite.

sace bhikkhave gilānupaṭṭhākānaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ evaṁ hoti sace kho mayaṁ gilānaṁ ṭhānā cāvessāma ābādho vā abhivaḍḍhissati kālakiriyā vā bhavissatīti. na bhikkhave gilāno ṭhānā cāvetabbo saṅghena tattha gantvā pavāretabbaṁ

“If the thought should occur to the monks who are tending to the sick monk, ‘If we move the sick one from this spot, his disease will grow worse or he will die,’ then the sick one should not be moved from his place. The Saṅgha should go there and invite.

na tveva vaggena saṅghena pavāretabbaṁ pavāreyya ce āpatti dukkaṭassa.

“Not even then should a factional Saṅgha invite. If it should invite: an offense of wrong doing.”

(Mv.IV.3.5) pavāraṇāhārako ce bhikkhave dinnāya pavāraṇāya tattheva pakkamati aññassa dātabbā pavāraṇā.

“Monks, if the conveyor of the invitation, having been given (another monk’s) invitation, goes away then and there (not to the Invitation), the invitation should be given to another (monk).

pavāraṇāhārako ce bhikkhave dinnāya pavāraṇāya tattheva vibbhamati .pe.

kālaṁ karoti sāmaṇero paṭijānāti sikkhaṁ paccakkhātako paṭijānāti antimavatthuṁ ajjhāpannako paṭijānāti ummattako paṭijānāti khittacitto paṭijānāti vedanaṭṭo paṭijānāti āpattiyā adassane ukkhittako paṭijānāti āpattiyā appaṭikamme ukkhittako paṭijānāti pāpikāya diṭṭhiyā appaṭinissagge ukkhittako paṭijānāti paṇḍako paṭijānāti theyyasaṁvāsako paṭijānāti titthiyapakkantako paṭijānāti tiracchānagato paṭijānāti mātughātako paṭijānāti pitughātako paṭijānāti arahantaghātako paṭijānāti bhikkhunīdūsako paṭijānāti saṅghabhedako paṭijānāti lohituppādako paṭijānāti ubhatobyañjanako paṭijānāti aññassa dātabbā pavāraṇā.

“Monks, if the conveyor of the invitation, having been given (another monk’s) invitation—then and there—renounces the training, if he admits: to being a novice, to having renounced the training, to having committed an extreme offense, to being insane, to being possessed, to being delirious with pain, to being suspended for not seeing an offense, to being suspended for not making amends for an offense, to being suspended for not relinquishing an evil view, to being a paṇḍaka, to being one living in affiliation by theft, to having gone over to another religion, to being an animal, a matricide, a patricide, the murderer of an arahant, the molester of a bhikkhunī, a schismatic, one who has shed a Tathāgata’s blood, or a hermaphrodite, then the invitation should be given to another (monk).

pavāraṇāhārako ce bhikkhave dinnāya pavāraṇāya antarāmagge pakkamati anāhaṭā hoti pavāraṇā.

“Monks, if the conveyor of the invitation, having been given (another monk’s) invitation, goes away (somewhere else) while on the way (to the Invitation), the invitation is not conveyed.

pavāraṇāhārako ce bhikkhave dinnāya pavāraṇāya antarāmagge vibbhamati kālaṁ karoti .pe.

“Monks, if the conveyor of the invitation, having been given (another monk’s) invitation—while on the way (to the Invitation)—renounces the training, dies, …

ubhatobyañjanako paṭijānāti anāhaṭā hoti pavāraṇā.

“admits to being a hermaphrodite, then the invitation is not conveyed.

pavāraṇāhārako ce bhikkhave dinnāya pavāraṇāya saṅghappatto pakkamati āhaṭā hoti pavāraṇā.

“Monks, if the conveyor of the invitation, having been given (another monk’s) invitation—on arriving in the Saṅgha—goes away (somewhere else), the purity is conveyed.

pavāraṇāhārako ce bhikkhave dinnāya pavāraṇāya saṅghappatto vibbhamati kālaṁ karoti .pe.

“Monks, if the conveyor of the invitation, having been given (another monk’s) purity—on arriving in the Saṅgha—disrobes, dies, …

ubhatobyañjanako paṭijānāti āhaṭā hoti pavāraṇā.

“admits to being a hermaphrodite, then the invitation is conveyed.

pavāraṇāhārako ce bhikkhave dinnāya pavāraṇāya saṅghappatto sutto na āroceti āhaṭā hoti pavāraṇā pavāraṇāhārakassa anāpatti.

“Monks, if the conveyor of the invitation, having been given (another monk’s) invitation—on arriving in the Saṅgha—falling asleep, doesn’t announce it, then the invitation is conveyed. There is no offense for the conveyor of the invitation.

pavāraṇāhārako ce bhikkhave dinnāya pavāraṇāya saṅghappatto samāpanno na āroceti āhaṭā hoti pavāraṇā pavāraṇāhārakassa anāpatti.

“Monks, if the conveyor of the invitation, having been given (another monk’s) invitation—on arriving in the Saṅgha—having entered a (meditative) attainment, doesn’t announce it, then the invitation is conveyed. There is no offense for the conveyor of the invitation.

pavāraṇāhārako ce bhikkhave dinnāya pavāraṇāya saṅghappatto pamatto na āroceti āhaṭā hoti pavāraṇā pavāraṇāhārakassa anāpatti.

“Monks, if the conveyor of the invitation, having been given (another monk’s) invitation—on arriving in the Saṅgha—doesn’t announce it out of carelessness, then the invitation is conveyed. There is no offense for the conveyor of the invitation.

pavāraṇāhārako ce bhikkhave dinnāya pavāraṇāya saṅghappatto sañcicca na āroceti āhaṭā hoti pavāraṇā pavāraṇāhārakassa āpatti dukkaṭassa.

“If the conveyor of the invitation, having been given (another monk’s) invitation—on arriving in the Saṅgha—intentionally does not announce it, the the invitation is conveyed. For the conveyor of the invitation: an offense of wrong doing.

anujānāmi bhikkhave tadahupavāraṇāya pavāraṇaṁ dentena chandampi dātuṁ santi saṅghassa karaṇīyanti.

“I allow that, on the Invitation day, when an invitation is given, that consent be given as well when the Saṅgha has something to be done.”

123. ñātakādiggahaṇakathā (Mv.IV.4.1)

The Discussion of Seizure by Relatives [Mv.II.24.1]

[230] tena kho pana samayena aññataraṁ bhakkhuṁ tadahupavāraṇāya ñātakā gaṇhiṁsu.

Now on that occasion a certain monk’s relatives seized him on the Invitation day.

bhagavato etamatthaṁ ārocesuṁ.

They reported the matter to the Blessed One.

idha pana bhikkhave bhikkhuṁ tadahupavāraṇāya ñātakā gaṇhanti.

“There is the case where relatives seize a monk on an Invitation day.

te ñātakā bhikkhūhi evamassu vacanīyā iṅgha tumhe āyasmanto imaṁ bhikkhuṁ muhuttaṁ muñcatha yāvāyaṁ bhikkhu pavāretīti.

“They should be addressed by the monks, ‘Please, sirs, will you release this monk for a moment while he invites?’

(Mv.IV.4.2) evañcetaṁ labhetha iccetaṁ kusalaṁ no ce labhetha te ñātakā bhikkhūhi evamassu vacanīyā iṅgha tumhe āyasmanto muhuttaṁ ekamantaṁ hotha yāvāyaṁ bhikkhu pavāraṇaṁ detīti.

“If this can be managed, well and good. If not, the relatives should be addressed by the monks, ‘Please, sirs, will you move aside for a moment while this monk gives his invitation?’

evañcetaṁ labhetha iccetaṁ kusalaṁ no ce labhetha te ñātakā bhikkhūhi evamassu vacanīyā iṅgha tumhe āyasmanto imaṁ bhikkhuṁ muhuttaṁ nissīmaṁ netha yāva saṅgho pavāretīti.

“If this can be managed, well and good. If not, the relatives should be addressed by the monks, ‘Please, sirs, will you take this monk outside the territory for a moment while the Saṅgha invites?’

evañcetaṁ labhetha iccetaṁ kusalaṁ no ce labhetha na tveva vaggena saṅghena pavāretabbaṁ pavāreyya ce āpatti dukkaṭassa.

“If this can be managed, well and good. If not, then not even then should a factional Saṅgha invite. If it should invite: an offense of wrong doing.

(Mv.IV.4.3) idha pana bhikkhave bhikkhuṁ tadahupavāraṇāya rājāno gaṇhanti corā gaṇhanti dhuttā gaṇhanti bhikkhupaccatthikā gaṇhanti.

“There is the case where kings seize a monk on an Invitation day … criminals seize him … mischief-makers seize him … opponents of the monks seize him.

te bhikkhupaccatthikā bhikkhūhi evamassu vacanīyā iṅgha tumhe āyasmanto imaṁ bhikkhuṁ muhuttaṁ muñcatha yāvāyaṁ bhikkhu pavāretīti.

“They should be addressed by the monks, ‘Please, sirs, will you release this monk for a moment while he invites?’

evañcetaṁ labhetha iccetaṁ kusalaṁ no ce labhetha te bhikkhupaccatthikā bhikkhūhi evamassu vacanīyā iṅgha tumhe āyasmanto muhuttaṁ ekamantaṁ hotha yāvāyaṁ bhikkhu pavāraṇaṁ detīti.

“If this can be managed, well and good. If not, the relatives should be addressed by the monks, ‘Please, sirs, will you move aside for a moment while this monk gives his invitation?’

evañcetaṁ labhetha iccetaṁ kusalaṁ no ce labhetha te bhikkhupaccatthikā bhikkhūhi evamassu vacanīyā iṅgha tumhe āyasmanto imaṁ bhikkhuṁ muhuttaṁ nissīmaṁ netha yāva saṅgho pavāretīti.

“If this can be managed, well and good. If not, the relatives should be addressed by the monks, ‘Please, sirs, will you take this monk outside the territory for a moment while the Saṅgha invites?’

evañcetaṁ labhetha iccetaṁ kusalaṁ no ce labhetha na tveva vaggena saṅghena pavāretabbaṁ pavāreyya ce āpatti dukkaṭassāti.

“If this can be managed, well and good. If not, then not even then should a factional Saṅgha invite. If it should invite: an offense of wrong doing.”

124. saṅghapavāraṇādippabhedā (Mv.IV.5.1)

Analysis of the Saṅgha-invitation, etc. [BMC Mv.II.26.1]

[231] tena kho pana samayena aññatarasmiṁ āvāse tadahupavāraṇāya pañca bhikkhū viharanti.

Now on that occasion there were five monks staying in a certain residence on the day of the Invitation.

athakho tesaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ etadahosi bhagavatā paññattaṁ saṅghena pavāretabbanti mayañcamha pañca janā kathaṁ nu kho amhehi pavāretabbanti.

Then the thought occurred to them, “It has been laid down by the Blessed One that the Saṅgha should invite. But we are five people—how should we invite?”

bhagavato etamatthaṁ ārocesuṁ.

They reported the matter to the Blessed One.

anujānāmi bhikkhave pañcannaṁ saṅghena pavāretunti.

“I allow the Saṅgha to invite when there are five.”

(Mv.IV.5.2) tena kho pana samayena aññatarasmiṁ āvāse tadahupavāraṇāya cattāro bhikkhū viharanti.

Now on that occasion there were four monks staying in a certain residence on the day of the Invitation.

athakho tesaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ etadahosi bhagavatā anuññātaṁ pañcannaṁ saṅghena pavāretuṁ mayañcamha cattāro janā kathaṁ nu kho amhehi pavāretabbanti.

Then the thought occurred to them, “It has been laid down by the Blessed One for the Saṅgha to invite when there are five. But we are four people—how should we invite?”

bhagavato etamatthaṁ ārocesuṁ.

They reported the matter to the Blessed One.

anujānāmi bhikkhave catunnaṁ aññamaññaṁ pavāretuṁ.

“Monks, I allow that a mutual Invitation be performed when there are four.”

(Mv.IV.5.3) evañca pana bhikkhave pavāretabbaṁ.

“And, monks, you should invite like this: [BMC]

byattena bhikkhunā paṭibalena te bhikkhū ñāpetabbā

“An experienced and competent monk should inform the monks:

suṇantu me āyasmanto ajja pavāraṇā.

“‘May the venerable ones listen to me. Today is the Invitation.

yadāyasmantānaṁ pattakallaṁ mayaṁ aññamaññaṁ pavāreyyāmāti.

“‘If the venerable ones are ready, we should mutually invite.’

therena bhikkhunā ekaṁsaṁ uttarāsaṅgaṁ karitvā ukkuṭikaṁ nisīditvā añjaliṁ paggahetvā te bhikkhū evamassu vacanīyā

“The senior(most) monk should arrange his upper robe over one shoulder, sit in the kneeling position with his hands placed palm-to-palm over the heart and say,

ahaṁ āvuso āyasmante pavāremi diṭṭhena vā sutena vā parisaṅkāya vā vadantu maṁ āyasmanto anukampaṁ upādāya passanto paṭikarissāmi

“‘Friends, I invite the venerable ones to speak to me—out of sympathy—with regard to what is seen, heard, or suspected. On seeing (the offense), I will make amends.1

dutiyampi āvuso āyasmante pavāremi diṭṭhena vā sutena vā parisaṅkāya vā vadantu maṁ āyasmanto anukampaṁ upādāya passanto paṭikarissāmi

“‘A second time, friends, I invite the venerable ones to speak to me—out of sympathy—with regard to what is seen, heard, or suspected. On seeing (the offense), I will make amends.

tatiyampi āvuso āyasmante pavāremi diṭṭhena vā sutena vā parisaṅkāya vā vadantu maṁ āyasmanto anukampaṁ upādāya passanto paṭikarissāmīti.

“‘A third time, friends, I invite the venerable ones to speak to me—out of sympathy—with regard to what is seen, heard, or suspected. On seeing (the offense), I will make amends.’

navakena bhikkhunā ekaṁsaṁ uttarāsaṅgaṁ karitvā ukkuṭikaṁ nisīditvā añjaliṁ paggahetvā te bhikkhū evamassu vacanīyā

“A junior monk should arrange his upper robe over one shoulder, sit in the kneeling position with his hands placed palm-to-palm over the heart and say,

ahaṁ bhante āyasmante pavāremi diṭṭhena vā sutena vā parisaṅkāya vā vadantu maṁ āyasmanto anukampaṁ upādāya passanto paṭikarissāmi

“‘Venerable sirs, I invite the venerable ones to speak to me—out of sympathy—with regard to what is seen, heard, or suspected. On seeing (the offense), I will make amends.

dutiyampi bhante āyasmante pavāremi diṭṭhena vā sutena vā parisaṅkāya vā vadantu maṁ āyasmanto anukampaṁ upādāya passanto paṭikarissāmi

“‘A second time, venerable sirs, I invite the venerable ones to speak to me—out of sympathy—with regard to what is seen, heard, or suspected. On seeing (the offense), I will make amends.

tatiyampi bhante āyasmante pavāremi diṭṭhena vā sutena vā parisaṅkāya vā vadantu maṁ āyasmanto anukampaṁ upādāya passanto paṭikarissāmīti.

“‘A third time, venerable sirs, I invite the venerable ones to speak to me—out of sympathy—with regard to what is seen, heard, or suspected. On seeing (the offense), I will make amends.’”

(Mv.IV.5.4) tena kho pana samayena aññatarasmiṁ āvāse tadahupavāraṇāya tayo bhikkhū viharanti.

Now on that occasion there were three monks staying in a certain residence on the day of the Invitation.

athakho tesaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ etadahosi bhagavatā anuññātaṁ pañcannaṁ saṅghena pavāretuṁ catunnaṁ aññamaññaṁ pavāretuṁ mayañcamha tayo janā kathaṁ nu kho amhehi pavāretabbanti.

Then the thought occurred to them, “It has been laid down by the Blessed One for the Saṅgha to invite when there are five, and that a mutual Invitation be performed when there are four. But we are three people—how should we invite?”

bhagavato etamatthaṁ ārocesuṁ.

They reported the matter to the Blessed One.

anujānāmi bhikkhave tiṇṇannaṁ aññamaññaṁ pavāretuṁ.

“Monks, I allow that a mutual Invitation be performed when there are three.”

evañca pana bhikkhave pavāretabbaṁ.

“And, monks, you should invite like this:

byattena bhikkhunā paṭibalena te bhikkhū ñāpetabbā

“An experienced and competent monk should inform the monks:

suṇantu me āyasmantā ajja pavāraṇā.

“‘May the venerable ones1 listen to me. Today is the Invitation.

1.The Burmese edition also has āyasmantā here. The previous section has āyasmanto, the usual plural of nouns in ‘-ant’, when the speaker is addressing three people. Is this a remnant of the Sankskrit dual form? The Sri Lankan edition has āyasmanto, and PTS has only dots. The Sanskrit dual Vocative of nouns in ‘-ant’ is ‘-antau’, so it may just be a mistake.

yadāyasmantānaṁ pattakallaṁ mayaṁ aññamaññaṁ pavāreyyāmāti.

“‘If the venerable ones are ready, we should mutually invite.’

therena bhikkhunā ekaṁsaṁ uttarāsaṅgaṁ karitvā ukkuṭikaṁ nisīditvā añjaliṁ paggahetvā te bhikkhū evamassu vacanīyā

“The senior(most) monk should arrange his upper robe over one shoulder, sit in the kneeling position with his hands placed palm-to-palm over the heart and say,

ahaṁ āvuso āyasmante pavāremi diṭṭhena vā sutena vā parisaṅkāya vā vadantu maṁ āyasmantā anukampaṁ upādāya passanto paṭikarissāmi

“‘Friends, I invite the venerable ones to speak to me—out of sympathy—with regard to what is seen, heard, or suspected. On seeing (the offense), I will make amends.

dutiyampi āvuso āyasmante pavāremi diṭṭhena vā sutena vā parisaṅkāya vā vadantu maṁ āyasmantā anukampaṁ upādāya passanto paṭikarissāmi

“‘A second time, friends, I invite the venerable ones to speak to me—out of sympathy—with regard to what is seen, heard, or suspected. On seeing (the offense), I will make amends.

tatiyampi āvuso āyasmante pavāremi diṭṭhena vā sutena vā parisaṅkāya vā vadantu maṁ āyasmantā anukampaṁ upādāya passanto paṭikarissāmīti.

“‘A third time, friends, I invite the venerable ones to speak to me—out of sympathy—with regard to what is seen, heard, or suspected. On seeing (the offense), I will make amends.’

navakena bhikkhunā ekaṁsaṁ uttarāsaṅgaṁ karitvā ukkuṭikaṁ nisīditvā añjaliṁ paggahetvā te bhikkhū evamassu vacanīyā

“A junior monk should arrange his upper robe over one shoulder, sit in the kneeling position with his hands placed palm-to-palm over the heart and say,

ahaṁ bhante āyasmante pavāremi diṭṭhena vā sutena vā parisaṅkāya vā vadantu maṁ āyasmantā anukampaṁ upādāya passanto paṭikarissāmi

“‘Venerable sirs, I invite the venerable ones to speak to me—out of sympathy—with regard to what is seen, heard, or suspected. On seeing (the offense), I will make amends.

dutiyampi bhante āyasmante pavāremi diṭṭhena vā sutena vā parisaṅkāya vā vadantu maṁ āyasmantā anukampaṁ upādāya passanto paṭikarissāmi

“‘A second time, venerable sirs, I invite the venerable ones to speak to me—out of sympathy—with regard to what is seen, heard, or suspected. On seeing (the offense), I will make amends.

tatiyampi bhante āyasmante pavāremi diṭṭhena vā sutena vā parisaṅkāya vā vadantu maṁ āyasmantā anukampaṁ upādāya passanto paṭikarissāmīti.

“‘A third time, venerable sirs, I invite the venerable ones to speak to me—out of sympathy—with regard to what is seen, heard, or suspected. On seeing (the offense), I will make amends.’”

(Mv.IV.5.5) tena kho pana samayena aññatarasmiṁ āvāse tadahupavāraṇāya dve bhikkhū viharanti

Now on that occasion there were two monks staying in a certain residence on the day of the Invitation.

athakho tesaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ etadahosi bhagavatā anuññātaṁ pañcannaṁ saṅghena pavāretuṁ catunnaṁ aññamaññaṁ pavāretuṁ tiṇṇannaṁ aññamaññaṁ pavāretuṁ mayañcamha dve janā kathaṁ nu kho amhehi pavāretabbanti.

Then the thought occurred to them, “It has been laid down by the Blessed One for the Saṅgha to invite when there are five, that a mutual Invitation be performed when there are four, and that a mutual Invitation be performed when there are three. But we are two people—how should we perform the Invitation?”

bhagavato etamatthaṁ ārocesuṁ.

They reported the matter to the Blessed One.

anujānāmi bhikkhave dvinnaṁ aññamaññaṁ pavāretuṁ.

“Monks, I allow that a mutual Invitation be performed when there are two.”

(Mv.IV.5.6) evañca pana bhikkhave pavāretabbaṁ.

“And, monks, you should invite like this:

therena bhikkhunā ekaṁsaṁ uttarāsaṅgaṁ karitvā ukkuṭikaṁ nisīditvā añjaliṁ paggahetvā navo bhikkhu evamassa vacanīyo

“The senior monk should arrange his upper robe over one shoulder, sit in the kneeling position with his hands placed palm-to-palm over the heart1 and say to the junior monk,

1. Cv.VI.6.5 states that ‘These ten are not to be paid homage: one accepted (ordained) later is not to be paid homage by one accepted earlier ….’ Apparently, in this case the senior monk is showing respect to the Dhamma, as all transactions are to be done ‘face-to-face with the Dhamma’.

ahaṁ āvuso āyasmantaṁ pavāremi diṭṭhena vā sutena vā parisaṅkāya vā vadatu maṁ āyasmā anukampaṁ upādāya passanto paṭikarissāmi

“‘Friend, I invite the venerable one to speak to me—out of sympathy—with regard to what is seen, heard, or suspected. On seeing (the offense), I will make amends.

dutiyampi āvuso āyasmantaṁ pavāremi diṭṭhena vā sutena vā parisaṅkāya vā vadatu maṁ āyasmā anukampaṁ upādāya passanto paṭikarissāmi

“‘A second time, friend, I invite the venerable one to speak to me—out of sympathy—with regard to what is seen, heard, or suspected. On seeing (the offense), I will make amends.

tatiyampi āvuso āyasmantaṁ pavāremi diṭṭhena vā sutena vā parisaṅkāya vā vadatu maṁ āyasmā anukampaṁ upādāya passanto paṭikarissāmīti.

“‘A third time, friend, I invite the venerable one to speak to me—out of sympathy—with regard to what is seen, heard, or suspected. On seeing (the offense), I will make amends.’

navakena bhikkhunā ekaṁsaṁ uttarāsaṅgaṁ karitvā ukkuṭikaṁ nisīditvā añjaliṁ paggahetvā thero bhikkhu evamassa vacanīyo

“The junior monk should arrange his upper robe over one shoulder, sit in the kneeling position with his hands placed palm-to-palm over the heart and say,

ahaṁ bhante āyasmantaṁ pavāremi diṭṭhena vā sutena vā parisaṅkāya vā vadatu maṁ āyasmā anukampaṁ upādāya passanto paṭikarissāmi

“‘Venerable sir, I invite the venerable one to speak to me—out of sympathy—with regard to what is seen, heard, or suspected. On seeing (the offense), I will make amends.

dutiyampi bhante āyasmantaṁ pavāremi diṭṭhena vā sutena vā parisaṅkāya vā vadatu maṁ āyasmā anukampaṁ upādāya passanto paṭikarissāmi

“‘A second time, venerable sir, I invite the venerable one to speak to me—out of sympathy—with regard to what is seen, heard, or suspected. On seeing (the offense), I will make amends.

tatiyampi bhante āyasmantaṁ pavāremi diṭṭhena vā sutena vā parisaṅkāya vā vadatu maṁ āyasmā anukampaṁ upādāya passanto paṭikarissāmīti.

“‘A third time, venerable sir, I invite the venerable one to speak to me—out of sympathy—with regard to what is seen, heard, or suspected. On seeing (the offense), I will make amends.’”

(Mv.IV.5.7) tena kho pana samayena aññatarasmiṁ āvāse tadahupavāraṇāya eko bhikkhu viharati.

Now on that occasion there was one monk staying in a certain residence on the day of the Invitation.

athakho tassa bhikkhuno etadahosi bhagavatā anuññātaṁ pañcannaṁ saṅghena pavāretuṁ catunnaṁ aññamaññaṁ pavāretuṁ tiṇṇannaṁ aññamaññaṁ pavāretuṁ dvinnaṁ aññamaññaṁ pavāretuṁ ahañcamhi ekako kathaṁ nu kho mayā pavāretabbanti.

Then the thought occurred to them, “It has been laid down by the Blessed One for the Saṅgha to invite when there are five, that a mutual Invitation be performed when there are four, that the mutual Invitation should be performed by a (group) of three, and that the mutual Invitation should be performed by a (group) of two. But I am alone—how should I perform the Invitation?”

bhagavato etamatthaṁ ārocesuṁ.

They reported the matter to the Blessed One.

(Mv.IV.5.8) idha pana bhikkhave aññatarasmiṁ āvāse tadahupavāraṇāya eko bhikkhu viharati.

“Monks, there is the case where there is one monk staying in a certain residence on the day of the Invitation.

tena bhikkhave bhikkhunā yattha bhikkhū paṭikkamanti upaṭṭhānasālāya vā maṇḍape vā rukkhamūle vā so deso sammajjitvā pānīyaṁ paribhojanīyaṁ upaṭṭhāpetvā āsanaṁ paññāpetvā padīpaṁ katvā nisīditabbaṁ.

“Having swept the place where the monks gather—an assembly hall, a pavilion, or the root of a tree—having set out drinking water and washing water, having laid out a seat, having made a light, he should sit down.

sace aññe bhikkhū āgacchanti tehi saddhiṁ pavāretabbaṁ no ce āgacchanti ajja me pavāraṇāti adhiṭṭhātabbaṁ no ce adhiṭṭhaheyya āpatti dukkaṭassa.

“If other monks arrive, he should invite together with them. If not, he should determine: ‘Today is my Invitation.’ If he does not determined (this): an offense of wrong doing. [BMC]

(Mv.IV.5.9) tatra bhikkhave yattha pañca bhikkhū viharanti na ekassa pavāraṇaṁ āharitvā catūhi saṅghena pavāretabbaṁ pavāreyyuṁ ce āpatti dukkaṭassa.

“In the case that five monks are staying together, a Saṅgha of four should not invite after having brought the invitation of one. If they should invite: an offense of wrong doing.

tatra bhikkhave yattha cattāro bhikkhū viharanti na ekassa pavāraṇaṁ āharitvā tīhi aññamaññaṁ pavāretabbaṁ pavāreyyuṁ ce āpatti dukkaṭassa.

“In the case that four monks are staying together, the mutual Invitation should not be performed by a Saṅgha of three after having brought the invitation of one. If they should invite: an offense of wrong doing.

tatra bhikkhave yattha tayo bhikkhū viharanti na ekassa pavāraṇaṁ āharitvā dvīhi aññamaññaṁ pavāretabbaṁ pavāreyyuṁ ce āpatti dukkaṭassa.

“In the case that three monks are staying together, the mutual Invitation should not be performed by a Saṅgha of two after having brought the invitation of one. If they should invite: an offense of wrong doing.

tatra bhikkhave yattha dve bhikkhū viharanti na ekassa pavāraṇaṁ āharitvā ekena adhiṭṭhātabbaṁ adhiṭṭhaheyya ce āpatti dukkaṭassāti.

“In the case that two monks are staying together, one should not determine, after having brought the invitation of one. If he should determine: an offense of wrong doing.” [BMC]

125. āpattipaṭikammavidhi (Mv.IV.6.1)

The Method for Making Amends for an Offense [Mv.II.27.1]

[232] tena kho pana samayena aññataro bhikkhu tadahupavāraṇāya āpattiṁ āpanno hoti.

Now on that occasion a certain monk had fallen into an offense on the day of the Invitation1.

1. This means that as of the day of the Invitation, he hadn’t made amends, not that he necessarily committed the offense on that day.

athakho tassa bhikkhuno etadahosi bhagavatā paññattaṁ na sāpattikena pavāretabbanti ahañcamhi āpattiṁ āpanno kathaṁ nu kho mayā paṭipajjitabbanti.

The thought occurred to him, “It has been laid down by the Blessed One that one with an offense should not invite. But I have fallen into an offense. What should I do?”

bhagavato etamatthaṁ ārocesuṁ.

They reported the matter to the Blessed One.

idha pana bhikkhave tadahupavāraṇāya āpattiṁ āpanno hoti.

“Monks, there is the case where a monk has fallen into an offense on the day of the Invitation.

tena bhikkhave bhikkhunā ekaṁ bhikkhuṁ upasaṅkamitvā ekaṁsaṁ uttarāsaṅgaṁ karitvā ukkuṭikaṁ nisīditvā añjaliṁ paggahetvā evamassa vacanīyo ahaṁ āvuso itthannāmaṁ āpattiṁ āpanno taṁ paṭidesemīti.

“Having approached one monks, having arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, the monk should sit in the kneeling position with his hands placed palm-to-palm over the heart and say, ‘Friend, I have fallen into such-and-such offense. I confess it.’

tena vattabbo passasīti.

“He should be asked, ‘Do you see it?’

āma passāmīti.

“‘Yes, I see it.’

āyatiṁ saṁvareyyāsīti.

“‘You should restrain yourself in the future.’”

idha pana bhikkhave bhikkhu tadahupavāraṇāya āpattiyā vematiko hoti.

“Monks, there is the case where a monk is doubtful (about whether or not he has fallen into an offense) on the day of the Invitation.

tena bhikkhave bhikkhunā ekaṁ bhikkhuṁ upasaṅkamitvā ekaṁsaṁ uttarāsaṅgaṁ karitvā ukkuṭikaṁ nisīditvā añjaliṁ paggahetvā evamassa vacanīyo

“Having approached one monks, having arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, the monk should sit in the kneeling position with his hands placed palm-to-palm over the heart and say,

ahaṁ āvuso itthannāmāya āpattiyā vematiko yadā nibbematiko bhavissāmi tadā taṁ āpattiṁ paṭikarissāmīti vatvā pavāretabbaṁ.

‘Friend, I am in doubt about such-and-such offense. When I become free from doubt, then I will make amends for the offense. Once that has been said, they should invite.

na tveva tappaccayā pavāraṇāya antarāyo kātabboti.

Not from that cause alone should an obstruction to the Invitation be made.”

126. āpattiāvikaraṇavidhi (Mv.IV.6.2)

The Method for Admitting an Offense (During the Invitation) [Mv.II.27.4]

tena kho pana samayena aññataro bhikkhu pavārayamāno āpattiṁ sarati.

Now on that occasion, a certain monk remembered an offense as he was inviting.

athakho tassa bhikkhuno etadahosi bhagavatā paññattaṁ na sāpattikena pavāretabbanti ahañcamhi āpattiṁ āpanno kathaṁ nu kho mayā paṭipajjitabbanti.

The thought occurred to him, “It has been laid down by the Blessed One that one with an offense should not invite. And I have fallen into an offense. What should I do?”

bhagavato etamatthaṁ ārocesuṁ.

They reported the matter to the Blessed One.

idha pana bhikkhave bhikkhu pavārayamāno āpattiṁ sarati.

“Monks, there is the case where a monk remembers an offense as he is inviting.

tena bhikkhave bhikkhunā sāmanto bhikkhu evamassa vacanīyo ahaṁ āvuso itthannāmaṁ āpattiṁ āpanno ito vuṭṭhahitvā taṁ āpattiṁ paṭikarissāmīti vatvā pavāretabbaṁ.

“That monk should say to the monk next to him, ‘Friend, I have fallen into such-and-such offense. Having gotten up from here, I will make amends for the offense. Once that has been said, he/they should invite.

na tveva tappaccayā pavāraṇāya antarāyo kātabbo.

“Not from that cause alone should an obstruction to the Invitation be made.”

(Mv.IV.6.3) idha pana bhikkhave bhikkhu pavārayamāno āpattiyā vematiko hoti.

“Monks, there is the case where a monk becomes doubtful about an offense as he is inviting.

tena bhikkhave bhikkhunā sāmanto bhikkhu evamassa vacanīyo ahaṁ āvuso itthannāmāya āpattiyā vematiko yadā nibbematiko bhavissāmi tadā taṁ āpattiṁ paṭikarissāmīti vatvā pavāretabbaṁ.

“That monk should say to the monk next to him, ‘Friend, I am doubtful about such-and-such offense. When I become free from doubt, then I will make amends for the offense. Once that has been said, he/they should invite.

na tveva tappaccayā pavāraṇāya antarāyo kātabboti.

Not from that cause alone should an obstruction to the Invitation be made.”

127. sabhāgāpattipaṭikammavidhi

The Method for Making Amends for an Offense Common to One Another [Mv.II.27.6]

tena kho pana samayena aññatarasmiṁ āvāse tadahupavāraṇāya sabbo saṅgho sabhāgaṁ āpattiṁ āpanno hoti.

Now on that occasion, the entire Saṅgha in a certain residence had fallen into an offense common to one another on the day of the Invitation.

athakho tesaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ etadahosi bhagavatā paññattaṁ na sabhāgā āpatti desetabbā na sabhāgā āpatti paṭiggahetabbāti ayañca sabbo saṅgho sabhāgaṁ āpattiṁ āpanno kathaṁ nu kho amhehi paṭipajjitabbanti.

Then the thought occurred to them, “It has been laid down by the Blessed One that an offense common to one another should not be confessed; (the confession of) an offense common to one another should not be received. But this entire Saṅgha has fallen into a common offense. What should we do?”

bhagavato etamatthaṁ ārocesuṁ.

They reported the matter to the Blessed One.

idha pana bhikkhave aññatarasmiṁ āvāse tadahupavāraṇāya sabbo saṅgho sabhāgaṁ āpattiṁ āpanno hoti.

“Monks, there is the case where the entire Saṅgha in a certain residence has fallen into an offense common to one another on the day of the Invitation.

tehi bhikkhave bhikkhūhi eko bhikkhu samantā āvāsā sajjukaṁ pāhetabbo gacchāvuso taṁ āpattiṁ paṭikaritvā āgaccha mayaṁ te santike taṁ āpattiṁ paṭikarissāmāti.

“Monks, one monk should be sent by the monks to a neighboring residence immediately, (saying,) ‘Go, friend. Make amends for that offense and come back. We will make amends for the offense in your presence.’

evañcetaṁ labhetha iccetaṁ kusalaṁ no ce labhetha byattena bhikkhunā paṭibalena saṅgho ñāpetabbo

“If this can be managed, well and good. If not, then an experienced and competent monk should inform the Saṅgha:

suṇātu me bhante saṅgho ayaṁ sabbo saṅgho sabhāgaṁ āpattiṁ āpanno yadā aññaṁ bhikkhuṁ suddhaṁ anāpattikaṁ passissati tadā tassa santike taṁ āpattiṁ paṭikarissatīti patvā pavāretabbaṁ.

[ME: vatvā, pavāretabbaṁ]

“‘Venerable sirs, may the Saṅgha listen to me. This entire Saṅgha has fallen into an offense common to one another. When it sees another monk—pure, without (that) offense—then it will make amends for that offense in his presence.’ Once that has been said, he/they should invite.

na tveva tappaccayā pavāraṇāya antarāyo kātabbo.

Not from that cause alone should an obstruction to the Uposatha be made.”

idha pana bhikkhave aññatarasmiṁ āvāse tadahupavāraṇāya sabbo saṅgho sabhāgāya āpattiyā vematiko hoti

“Monks, there is the case where the entire Saṅgha in a certain residence is doubtful about an offense common to one another on the day of the Invitation.

byattena bhikkhunā paṭibalena saṅgho ñāpetabbo

“An experienced and competent monk should inform the Saṅgha:

suṇātu me bhante saṅgho ayaṁ sabbo saṅgho sabhāgāya āpattiyā vematiko yadā nibbematiko bhavissati tadā taṁ āpattiṁ paṭikarissatīti vatvā pavāretabbaṁ.

“‘Venerable sirs, may the Saṅgha listen to me. This entire Saṅgha is doubtful about an offense common to one another. When it becomes free from doubt, then it will make amends for that offense.’ Once that has been said, he/they should invite.

na tveva tappaccayā pavāraṇāya antarāyo kātabboti.

“Not from that cause alone should an obstruction to the Uposatha be made.”

paṭhamabhāṇavāraṁ niṭṭhitaṁ.

The first recitation section is finished.

128. anāpattipannarasakaṁ (Mv.IV.7.1)

The Set of Fifteen Non-Offenses [Mv.II.28.1]

[233] tena kho pana samayena aññatarasmiṁ āvāse tadahupavāraṇāya sambahulā āvāsikā bhikkhū sannipatiṁsu pañca vā atirekā vā.

Now on that occasion, in a certain residence, on the day of the Invitation several resident monks gathered—five or more.

te na jāniṁsu atthaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū anāgatāti.

They didn’t know that there were other resident monks who hadn’t come.

te dhammasaññino vinayasaññino vaggā samaggasaññino pavāresuṁ.

Perceiving it to be Dhamma, perceiving it to be Vinaya—factional, but perceiving it to be united—they invited.

tehi pavāriyamāne athaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū āgacchiṁsu bahutarā.

As they were inviting, a greater number of other resident monks came.

bhagavato etamatthaṁ ārocesuṁ.

They reported the matter to the Blessed One.

(Mv.IV.7.2) idha pana bhikkhave aññatarasmiṁ āvāse tadahupavāraṇāya sambahulā āvāsikā bhikkhū sannipatanti pañca vā atirekā vā.

“Monks, there is the case where, in a certain residence, on the day of the Invitation, several resident monks gather—five or more.

te na jānanti atthaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū anāgatāti.

“They don’t know that there are other resident monks who haven’t come.

te dhammasaññino vinayasaññino vaggā samaggasaññino pavārenti.

“Perceiving it to be Dhamma, perceiving it to be Vinaya—factional, but perceiving it to be united—they invite.

tehi pavāriyamāne athaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū āgacchanti bahutarā.

“As they are inviting, a greater number of other resident monks comes.

tehi bhikkhave bhikkhūhi puna pavāretabbaṁ

“The monks should invite again.

pavāritānaṁ anāpatti.

“There is no offense for those who have invited.

(Mv.IV.7.3) idha pana bhikkhave aññatarasmiṁ āvāse tadahupavāraṇāya sambahulā āvāsikā bhikkhū sannipatanti pañca vā atirekā vā.

“Monks, there is the case where, in a certain residence, on the day of the Invitation, several resident monks gather—five or more.

te na jānanti atthaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū anāgatāti.

“They don’t know that there are other resident monks who haven’t come.

te dhammasaññino vinayasaññino vaggā samaggasaññino pavārenti.

“Perceiving it to be Dhamma, perceiving it to be Vinaya—factional, but perceiving it to be united—they invite.

tehi pavāriyamāne athaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū āgacchanti samasamā.

“As they are inviting, an equal number of other resident monks comes.

pavāritā suppavāritā avasesehi pavāretabbaṁ

“Those who have invited have invited well. The remainder should invite.

pavāritānaṁ anāpatti.

“There is no offense for those who have invited.

idha pana bhikkhave aññatarasmiṁ āvāse tadahupavāraṇāya sambahulā āvāsikā bhikkhū sannipatanti pañca vā atirekā vā.

“Monks, there is the case where, in a certain residence, on the day of the Invitation, several resident monks gather—five or more.

te na jānanti atthaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū anāgatāti.

“They don’t know that there are other resident monks who haven’t come.

te dhammasaññino vinayasaññino vaggā samaggasaññino pavārenti.

“Perceiving it to be Dhamma, perceiving it to be Vinaya—factional, but perceiving it to be united—they invite.

tehi pavāriyamāne athaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū āgacchanti thokatarā.

“As they are inviting, a smaller number of other resident monks comes.

pavāritā suppavāritā avasesehi pavāretabbaṁ

“Those who have invited have invited well. The remainder should invite.

pavāritānaṁ anāpatti.

“There is no offense for those who have invited.

(Mv.IV.7.4) idha pana bhikkhave aññatarasmiṁ āvāse tadahupavāraṇāya sambahulā āvāsikā bhikkhū sannipatanti pañca vā atirekā vā.

“Monks, there is the case where, in a certain residence, on the day of the Invitation, several resident monks gather—five or more.

te na jānanti atthaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū anāgatāti.

“They don’t know that there are other resident monks who haven’t come.

te dhammasaññino vinayasaññino vaggā samaggasaññino pavārenti.

“Perceiving it to be Dhamma, perceiving it to be Vinaya—factional, but perceiving it to be united—they invite.

tehi pavāritamatte athaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū āgacchanti bahutarā.

“When the Invitation has just been performed by them, a greater number of other resident monks comes.

tehi bhikkhave bhikkhūhi puna pavāretabbaṁ

“The monks should invite again.

pavāritānaṁ anāpatti .pe.

“There is no offense for those who have invited. …

athaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū āgacchanti samasamā.

“an equal number of other resident monks comes.

pavāritā suppavāritā tesaṁ santike pavāretabbaṁ

“Those who have invited have invited well. They (the newcomers) should invite in their presence.

pavāritānaṁ anāpatti .pe.

“There is no offense for those who have invited. …

athaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū āgacchanti thokatarā.

“a smaller number of other resident monks comes.

pavāritā suppavāritā tesaṁ santike pavāretabbaṁ

“Those who have invited have invited well. They (the newcomers) should invite in their presence.

pavāritānaṁ anāpatti.

“There is no offense for those who have invited.

(Mv.IV.7.5) idha pana bhikkhave aññatarasmiṁ āvāse tadahupavāraṇāya sambahulā āvāsikā bhikkhū sannipatanti pañca vā atirekā vā.

“Monks, there is the case where, in a certain residence, on the day of the Invitation, several resident monks gather—five or more.

te na jānanti atthaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū anāgatāti.

“They don’t know that there are other resident monks who haven’t come.

te dhammasaññino vinayasaññino vaggā samaggasaññino pavārenti.

“Perceiving it to be Dhamma, perceiving it to be Vinaya—factional, but perceiving it to be united—they invite.

tehi pavāritamatte avuṭṭhitāya parisāya athaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū āgacchanti bahutarā.

“When the Invitation has just been performed by them and the assembly hasn’t gotten up, a greater number of other resident monks comes.

tehi bhikkhave bhikkhūhi puna pavāretabbaṁ

“The monks should invite again.

pavāritānaṁ anāpatti .pe.

“There is no offense for those who have invited. …

athaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū āgacchanti samasamā .pe.

“an equal number of other resident monks comes.

thokatarā.

“smaller.

pavāritā suppavāritā tesaṁ santike pavāretabbaṁ

“Those who have invited have invited well. They (the newcomers) should invite in their presence.

pavāritānaṁ anāpatti.

“There is no offense for those who have invited.

idha pana bhikkhave aññatarasmiṁ āvāse tadahupavāraṇāya sambahulā āvāsikā bhikkhū sannipatanti pañca vā atirekā vā.

“Monks, there is the case where, in a certain residence, on the day of the Invitation, several resident monks gather—five or more.

te na jānanti atthaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū anāgatāti.

“They don’t know that there are other resident monks who haven’t come.

te dhammasaññino vinayasaññino vaggā samaggasaññino pavārenti.

“Perceiving it to be Dhamma, perceiving it to be Vinaya—factional, but perceiving it to be united—they invite.

tehi pavāritamatte ekaccāya vuṭṭhitāya parisāya athaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū āgacchanti bahutarā.

“When the Invitation has just been performed by them and the some of the assembly has gotten up, a greater number of other resident monks comes.

tehi bhikkhave bhikkhūhi puna pavāretabbaṁ

“The monks should invite again.

pavāritānaṁ anāpatti .pe.

“There is no offense for those who have invited. …

athaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū āgacchanti samasamā .pe.

“an equal number of other resident monks comes.

thokatarā.

“smaller.

pavāritā suppavāritā tesaṁ santike pavāretabbaṁ

“Those who have invited have invited well. They (the newcomers) should invite in their presence.

pavāritānaṁ anāpatti.

“There is no offense for those who have invited.

idha pana bhikkhave aññatarasmiṁ āvāse tadahupavāraṇāya sambahulā āvāsikā bhikkhū sannipatanti pañca vā atirekā vā.

“Monks, there is the case where, in a certain residence, on the day of the Invitation, several resident monks gather—five or more.

te na jānanti atthaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū anāgatāti.

“They don’t know that there are other resident monks who haven’t come.

te dhammasaññino vinayasaññino vaggā samaggasaññino pavārenti.

“Perceiving it to be Dhamma, perceiving it to be Vinaya—factional, but perceiving it to be united—they invite.

tehi pavāritamatte sabbāya vuṭṭhitāya parisāya athaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū āgacchanti bahutarā.

“When the Invitation has just been performed by them and all of the assembly has gotten up, a greater number of other resident monks comes.

tehi bhikkhave bhikkhūhi puna pavāretabbaṁ

“The monks should invite again.

pavāritānaṁ anāpatti .pe.

“There is no offense for those who have invited. …

athaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū āgacchanti samasamā .pe.

“an equal number of other resident monks comes.

thokatarā.

“smaller.

pavāritā suppavāritā tesaṁ santike pavāretabbaṁ

“Those who have invited have invited well. They (the newcomers) should invite in their presence.

pavāritānaṁ anāpatti.

“There is no offense for those who have invited.

anāpattipaṇṇarasakaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ.

The Set of Fifteen Non-offenses is finished.

129. vaggāvaggasaññīpannarasakaṁ (Mv.IV.8.1)

The Set of Fifteen on Factional (Invitations) Perceived as Factional [Mv.II.29.1]

[234] idha pana bhikkhave aññatarasmiṁ āvāse tadahupavāraṇāya sambahulā āvāsikā bhikkhū sannipatanti pañca vā atirekā vā.

“Monks, there is the case where, in a certain residence, on the day of the Invitation, several resident monks gather—five or more.

te jānanti [BJE: te na jānanti] atthaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū anāgatāti.

“They know that there are other resident monks who haven’t come.

te dhammasaññino vinayasaññino vaggā samaggasaññino [ME, PTS: vaggā vaggasaññino] pavārenti.

“Perceiving it to be Dhamma, perceiving it to be Vinaya—factional and perceiving it to be factional1—they invite.

tehi pavāriyamāne athaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū āgacchanti bahutarā.

“As they are inviting, a greater number of other resident monks comes.

tehi bhikkhave bhikkhūhi puna pavāretabbaṁ

“The monks should invite again.

pavāritānaṁ āpatti dukkaṭassa .pe.

“There is an offense of wrong doing for those who have invited. …

(Mv.IV.8.2) athaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū āgacchanti samasamā .pe.

“an equal number of other resident monks comes. …

thokatarā.

“smaller.

pavāritā suppavāritā avasesehi pavāretabbaṁ

“Those who have invited have invited well. The remainder should invite.

pavāritānaṁ āpatti dukkaṭassa.

“There is an offense of wrong doing for those who have invited.

(Mv.IV.8.3) idha pana bhikkhave aññatarasmiṁ āvāse tadahupavāraṇāya sambahulā āvāsikā bhikkhū sannipatanti pañca vā atirekā vā.

“Monks, there is the case where, in a certain residence, on the day of the Invitation, several resident monks gather—five or more.

te jānanti [BJE: te na jānanti] atthaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū anāgatāti.

“They know that there are other resident monks who haven’t come.

te dhammasaññino vinayasaññino vaggā samaggasaññino [ME, PTS: vaggā vaggasaññino] pavārenti.

“Perceiving it to be Dhamma, perceiving it to be Vinaya—factional and perceiving it to be factional—they invite.

tehi pavāritamatte .pe.

“when they have just invited …

avuṭṭhitāya parisāya ekaccāya vuṭṭhitāya parisāya sabbāya vuṭṭhitāya parisāya athaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū āgacchanti bahutarā .pe.

“the assembly hasn’t gotten up … some of the assembly has gotten up … all of the assembly has gotten up, a greater number of other resident monks comes.

samasamā .pe.

“an equal number …

thokatarā.

“smaller …

pavāritā suppavāritā tesaṁ santike pavāretabbaṁ

“Those who have invited have invited well. They (the newcomers) should invite in their presence.

pavāritānaṁ āpatti dukkaṭassa.

“There is an offense of wrong doing for those who have invited.

vaggāsamaggasaññipaṇṇarasakaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ.

The Set of Fifteen on Factional (Invitations) Perceived as Factional is finished.

130. vematikapannarasakaṁ (Mv.IV.9.1)

The Set of Fifteen in the Case of Doubt [Mv.II.30.1]

[235] idha pana bhikkhave aññatarasmiṁ āvāse tadahupavāraṇāya sambahulā āvāsikā bhikkhū sannipatanti pañca vā atirekā vā.

“Monks, there is the case where, in a certain residence, on the day of the Invitation, several resident monks gather—five or more.

te jānanti atthaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū anāgatāti.

“They know that there are other resident monks who haven’t come.

te kappati nu kho amhākaṁ pavāretuṁ na nu kho kappatīti vematikā pavārenti.

“(Thinking,) ‘Is it allowable for us to invite, or is it not allowable?’ doubtful, they invite.

tehi pavāriyamāne athaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū āgacchanti bahutarā.

“As they are inviting, a greater number of other resident monks comes.

tehi bhikkhave bhikkhūhi puna pavāretabbaṁ

“The monks should invite again.

pavāritānaṁ āpatti dukkaṭassa .pe.

“There is an offense of wrong doing for those who have invited. …

(Mv.IV.9.2) athaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū āgacchanti samasamā .pe.

“an equal number of other resident monks comes. …

thokatarā.

“smaller.

pavāritā suppavāritā avasesehi pavāretabbaṁ

“Those who have invited have invited well. The remainder should invite.

pavāritānaṁ āpatti dukkaṭassa.

“There is an offense of wrong doing for those who have invited.

idha pana bhikkhave aññatarasmiṁ āvāse tadahupavāraṇāya sambahulā āvāsikā bhikkhū sannipatanti pañca vā atirekā vā.

“Monks, there is the case where, in a certain residence, on the day of the Invitation, several resident monks gather—five or more.

te jānanti atthaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū anāgatāti.

“They know that there are other resident monks who haven’t come.

te kappati nu kho amhākaṁ pavāretuṁ na nu kho kappatīti vematikā pavārenti.

“(Thinking,) ‘Is it allowable for us to invite, or is it not allowable?’ doubtful, they invite.

tehi pavāritamatte .pe.

“When they have just invited …

avuṭṭhitāya parisāya ekaccāya vuṭṭhitāya parisāya sabbāya vuṭṭhitāya parisāya athaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū āgacchanti bahutarā .pe.

“the assembly hasn’t gotten up … some of the assembly has gotten up …all of the assembly has gotten up, a greater number of other resident monks comes.

samasamā .pe.

“an equal number …

thokatarā.

“smaller..

pavāritā suppavāritā tesaṁ santike pavāretabbaṁ

“Those who have invited have invited well. They (the newcomers) should invite in their presence.

pavāritānaṁ āpatti dukkaṭassa.

“There is an offense of wrong doing for those who have invited.

vematikapaṇṇarasakaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ.

The Set of Fifteen in the Case of Doubt is finished.

131. kukkuccapakatapannarasakaṁ (Mv.IV.10.1)

The Set of Fifteen Done Affected by Anxiety [Mv.II.31.1]

[236] idha pana bhikkhave aññatarasmiṁ āvāse tadahupavāraṇāya sambahulā āvāsikā bhikkhū sannipatanti pañca vā atirekā vā.

“Monks, there is the case where, in a certain residence, on the day of the Invitation, several resident monks gather—five or more.

te jānanti atthaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū anāgatāti.

“They know that there are other resident monks who haven’t come.

te kappateva amhākaṁ pavāretuṁ namhākaṁ na kappatīti kukkuccapakatā pavārenti.

“(Thinking,) ‘It’s certainly allowable for us to invite. It’s not unallowable,’ but affected by anxiety1, they invite.

tehi pavāriyamāne athaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū āgacchanti bahutarā.

“As they are inviting, a greater number of other resident monks comes.

tehi bhikkhave bhikkhūhi puna pavāretabbaṁ

“The monks should invite again.

pavāritānaṁ āpatti dukkaṭassa .pe.

“There is an offense of wrong doing for those reciting …

(Mv.IV.10.2) athaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū āgacchanti samasamā .pe.

“an equal number of other resident monks comes. …

thokatarā.

“smaller.

pavāritā suppavāritā avasesehi pavāretabbaṁ

“Those who have invited have invited well. The remainder should invite.

pavāritānaṁ āpatti dukkaṭassa.

“There is an offense of wrong doing for those who have invited.

idha pana bhikkhave aññatarasmiṁ āvāse tadahupavāraṇāya sambahulā āvāsikā bhikkhū sannipatanti pañca vā atirekā vā.

“Monks, there is the case where, in a certain residence, on the day of the Invitation, several resident monks gather—five or more.

te jānanti atthaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū anāgatāti.

“They know that there are other resident monks who haven’t come.

te kappateva amhākaṁ pavāretuṁ namhākaṁ na kappatīti kukkuccapakatā pavārenti.

“(Thinking,) ‘It’s certainly allowable for us to invite. It’s not unallowable,’ but affected by anxiety, they invite.

tehi pavāritamatte .pe.

“When they have just invited …

avuṭṭhitāya parisāya ekaccāya vuṭṭhitāya parisāya sabbāya vuṭṭhitāya parisāya athaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū āgacchanti bahutarā .pe.

“the assembly hasn’t gotten up … some of the assembly has gotten up … all of the assembly has gotten up, a greater number of other resident monks comes.

samasamā .pe.

“an equal number …

thokatarā.

“smaller.

pavāritā suppavāritā tesaṁ santike pavāretabbaṁ

“Those who have invited have invited well. They (the newcomers) should invite in their presence.

pavāritānaṁ āpatti dukkaṭassa.

“There is an offense of wrong doing for those who have invited.

kukkuccapakatapaṇṇarasakaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ.

The Set of Fifteen Done Affected by Anxiety is finished.

132. bhedapurekkhārapannarasakaṁ (Mv.IV.11.1)

The Set of Fifteen Done Aiming as Schism [Mv.II.32.1]

[237] idha pana bhikkhave aññatarasmiṁ āvāse tadahupavāraṇāya sambahulā āvāsikā bhikkhū sannipatanti pañca vā atirekā vā.

“Monks, there is the case where, in a certain residence, on the day of the Invitation, several resident monks gather—five or more.

te jānanti atthaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū anāgatāti.

“They know that there are other resident monks who haven’t come.

te nassantete vinassantete ko tehi atthoti bhedapurekkhārā pavārenti.

“(Thinking,) ‘They are lost. They are destroyed. Who needs them?’ aiming at schism, they invite.

tehi pavāriyamāne athaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū āgacchanti bahutarā.

“As they are inviting, a greater number of other resident monks comes.

tehi bhikkhave bhikkhūhi puna pavāretabbaṁ

“The monks should invite again.

pavāritānaṁ āpatti thullaccayassa .pe.

“There is a grave offense for those inviting. …

(Mv.IV.11.2) athaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū āgacchanti samasamā .pe.

“an equal number of other resident monks comes. …

thokatarā.

“smaller.

pavāritā suppavāritā avasesehi pavāretabbaṁ

“Those who have invited have invited well. The remainder should invite.

pavāritānaṁ āpatti thullaccayassa.

“There is a grave offense for those inviting.

idha pana bhikkhave aññatarasmiṁ āvāse tadahupavāraṇāya sambahulā āvāsikā bhikkhū sannipatanti pañca vā atirekā vā.

“Monks, there is the case where, in a certain residence, on the day of the Invitation, several resident monks gather—five or more.

te jānanti atthaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū anāgatāti.

“They know that there are other resident monks who haven’t come.

te nassantete vinassantete ko tehi atthoti bhedapurekkhārā pavārenti.

“(Thinking,) ‘They are lost. They are destroyed. Who needs them?’ aiming at schism, they invite.

tehi pavāritamatte .pe.

“When they have just invited …

avuṭṭhitāya parisāya ekaccāya vuṭṭhitāya parisāya sabbāya vuṭṭhitāya parisāya athaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū āgacchanti bahutarā.

“the assembly hasn’t gotten up … some of the assembly has gotten up … all of the assembly has gotten up, a greater number of other resident monks comes.

tehi bhikkhave bhikkhūhi puna pavāretabbaṁ

“The monks should invite again.

pavāritānaṁ āpatti thullaccayassa .pe.

“There is a grave offense for those inviting. …

athaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū āgacchanti samasamā .pe.

“an equal number of other resident monks comes. …

thokatarā.

“smaller.

pavāritā suppavāritā tesaṁ santike pavāretabbaṁ

“Those who have invited have invited well. They (the newcomers) should invite in their presence.

pavāritānaṁ āpatti thullaccayassa.

“There is a grave offense for those inviting.”

bhedapurekkhārapaṇṇarasakaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ.

The Set of Fifteen Done Aiming as Schism is finished.

133. sīmokkantikapeyyālaṁ (Mv.IV.12.1)

The Formula for Deriving Triplets on Entering the Territory [Mv.II.33.1]

[238] idha pana bhikkhave aññatarasmiṁ āvāse tadahupavāraṇāya sambahulā āvāsikā bhikkhū sannipatanti pañca vā atirekā vā.

“Monks, there is the case where, in a certain residence, on the day of the Invitation, several resident monks gather—five or more.

te na jānanti aññe āvāsikā bhikkhū antosīmaṁ okkamantīti .pe.

“They don’t1 know that other resident monks are entering the territory. …

1. The PTS edition gives the case where they do know, see, or hear as the example, but in Horner’s translation there is a note explaining that it means to include the case of not knowing, etc., as well.

te na jānanti aññe āvāsikā bhikkhū antosīmaṁ okkantāti .pe.

“They don’t know that other resident monks have entered the territory. …

te na passanti aññe āvāsike bhikkhū antosīmaṁ okkamante .pe.

“They don’t see other resident monks entering the territory. …

te na passanti aññe āvāsike bhikkhū antosīmaṁ okkante .pe.

“They don’t see other resident monks who have entered the territory. …

te na suṇanti aññe āvāsikā bhikkhū antosīmaṁ okkamantīti .pe.

“They don’t hear that, ‘Other resident monks are entering the territory.’ …

te na suṇanti aññe āvāsikā bhikkhū antosīmaṁ okkantāti.

“They don’t hear that, ‘Other resident monks have entered the territory.’ …

āvāsikena āvāsikā ekasatapañcasattatitikanayato āvāsikena āgantukā āgantukena āvāsikā āgantukena āgantukā peyyālamukhena satta tikasatāni honti.

“Resident monks with resident monks: There are 1751 from this method of deriving triplets. Using this formula (with) ‘Incoming monks with resident monks, resident monks with incoming monks, and incoming monks with incoming monks,’ there are 700 triplets.

134. divasanānattaṁ (Mv.IV.13.1)

Differences in Day [Mv.II.34.1]

[239] idha pana bhikkhave āvāsikānaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ cātuddaso hoti āgantukānaṁ paṇṇaraso.

“Monks, there is the case where for the resident monks it is the fourteenth; for the incoming monks it is the fifteenth1.

1. In other words, they have calculated the date of the Invitation differently.

sace āvāsikā bahutarā honti āgantukehi āvāsikānaṁ anuvattitabbaṁ.

“If the resident monks are more numerous, then the incoming monks should go along with the resident monks.

sace samasamā honti āgantukehi āvāsikānaṁ anuvattitabbaṁ.

“If they are equal in number, then the incoming monks should go along with the resident monks.

sace āgantukā bahutarā honti āvāsikehi āgantukānaṁ anuvattitabbaṁ.

“If the incoming monks are more numerous, then the resident monks should go along with the incoming monks.

idha pana bhikkhave āvāsikānaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ paṇṇaraso hoti āgantukānaṁ cātuddaso.

“Monks, there is the case where for the resident monks it is the fifteenth; for the incoming monks it is the fourteenth.

sace āvāsikā bahutarā honti āgantukehi āvāsikānaṁ anuvattitabbaṁ.

“If the resident monks are more numerous, then the incoming monks should go along with the resident monks.

sace samasamā honti āgantukehi āvāsikānaṁ anuvattitabbaṁ.

“If they are equal in number, then the incoming monks should go along with the resident monks.

sace āgantukā bahutarā honti āvāsikehi āgantukānaṁ anuvattitabbaṁ.

“If the incoming monks are more numerous, then the resident monks should go along with the incoming monks.

idha pana bhikkhave āvāsikānaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ pāṭipado hoti āgantukānaṁ paṇṇaraso.

“Monks, there is the case where for the resident monks it is the first day of the (following) fortnight; for the incoming monks it is the fifteenth.

sace āvāsikā bahutarā honti āvāsikehi āgantukānaṁ nākāmā dātabbā sāmaggī āgantukehi nissīmaṁ gantvā pavāretabbaṁ.

“If the resident monks are more numerous, then the resident monks—if they are not unwilling—should give their unity1 to the incoming monks. Then the incoming monks, having gone outside the territory, should invite.

1. This phrase, dātabbā sāmaggī, is not explained anywhere in the Canon or Commentaries. Perhaps it is a remnant of a procedure that was later abandoned.

sace samasamā honti āvāsikehi āgantukānaṁ nākāmā dātabbā sāmaggī āgantukehi nissīmaṁ gantvā pavāretabbaṁ.

“If they are equal in number, then the resident monks—if they are not unwilling—should give their unity to the incoming monks. Then the incoming monks, having gone outside the territory, should invite.

sace āgantukā bahutarā honti āvāsikehi āgantukānaṁ sāmaggī vā dātabbā nissīmaṁ vā gantabbaṁ.

“If the incoming monks are more numerous, then the resident monks should either give their unity to the incoming monks or go outside of the territory.

idha pana bhikkhave āvāsikānaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ paṇṇaraso hoti āgantukānaṁ pāṭipado.

“Monks, there is the case where for the resident monks it is the fifteenth; for the incoming monks it is the first day of the (following) fortnight.

sace āvāsikā bahutarā honti āgantukehi āvāsikānaṁ sāmaggī vā dātabbā nissīmaṁ vā gantabbaṁ.

“If the resident monks are more numerous, then the incoming monks should either give their unity to the resident monks or go outside of the territory.

sace samasamā honti āgantukehi āvāsikānaṁ sāmaggī vā dātabbā nissīmaṁ vā gantabbaṁ.

“If they are equal in number, then the incoming monks should either give their unity to the resident monks or go outside of the territory.

sace āgantukā bahutarā honti āgantukehi āvāsikānaṁ nākāmā dātabbā sāmaggī āvāsikehi nissīmaṁ gantvā pavāretabbaṁ.

“If the incoming monks are more numerous, then the incoming monks—if they are not unwilling—should give their unity to the resident monks. Then the resident monks, having gone outside the territory, should invite.

135. liṅgādidassanaṁ

Seeing Traces, etc. [Mv.II.34.5]

[240] idha pana bhikkhave āgantukā bhikkhū passanti āvāsikānaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ āvāsikākāraṁ āvāsikaliṅgaṁ āvāsikanimittaṁ āvāsikuddesaṁ supaññattaṁ mañcapīṭhaṁ bhisibimbohanaṁ pānīyaṁ paribhojanīyaṁ supaṭṭhitaṁ pariveṇaṁ susammaṭṭhaṁ.

“There is the case where incoming monks see evidence of resident monks, traces and signs of resident monks, indications that there are resident monks—a bed & bench or mattress & pillow well laid out, drinking water and washing water set out, the surrounding area [courtyard] well-swept.

passitvā vematikā honti atthi nu kho āvāsikā bhikkhū natthi nu khoti.

On seeing this, they become doubtful: ‘Are there resident monks or not?’

te vematikā na vicinanti avicinitvā pavārenti āpatti dukkaṭassa .pe.

“Being doubtful, they don’t search for them. Not searching, they invite: an offense of wrong doing. …

te vematikā vicinanti vicinitvā na passanti apassitvā pavārenti anāpatti.

“Being doubtful, they search for them. Searching for them, they don’t see them. Not seeing them, they invite: no offense.

te vematikā vicinanti vicinitvā passanti passitvā ekato pavārenti anāpatti.

“Being doubtful, they search for them. Searching for them, they see them. Seeing them, they invite together with them: no offense.

te vematikā vicinanti vicinitvā passanti passitvā pāṭekkaṁ pavārenti āpatti dukkaṭassa.

“Being doubtful, they search for them. Searching for them, they see them. Seeing them, they invite separately: an offense of wrong doing1.

te vematikā vicinanti vicinitvā passanti passitvā nassantete vinassantete ko tehi atthoti bhedapurekkhārā pavārenti āpatti thullaccayassa.

“Being doubtful, they search for them. Searching for them, they see them. Seeing them, (thinking,) ‘They are lost. They are destroyed. Who needs them?’ they invite separately, aiming at schism: a grave offense.

idha pana bhikkhave āgantukā bhikkhū suṇanti āvāsikānaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ āvāsikākāraṁ āvāsikaliṅgaṁ āvāsikanimittaṁ āvāsikuddesaṁ caṅkamantānaṁ padasaddaṁ sajjhāyasaddaṁ ukkāsitasaddaṁ khipitasaddaṁ.

“There is the case where incoming monks hear evidence of resident monks, traces and signs of resident monks, indications that there are resident monks—the sound of feet walking back and forth, the sound of chanting, throat-clearing, or sneezing.

sutvā vematikā honti atthi nu kho āvāsikā bhikkhū natthi nu khoti.

On hearing this, they become doubtful: ‘Are there resident monks or not?’

te vematikā na vicinanti avicinitvā pavārenti āpatti dukkaṭassa .pe.

“Being doubtful, they don’t search for them. Not searching, they invite: an offense of wrong doing. …

te vematikā vicinanti vicinitvā na passanti apassitvā pavārenti anāpatti.

“Being doubtful, they search for them. Searching for them, they don’t see them. Not seeing them, they invite: no offense.

te vematikā vicinanti vicinitvā passanti passitvā ekato pavārenti anāpatti.

“Being doubtful, they search for them. Searching for them, they see them. Seeing them, they invite together with them: no offense.

te vematikā vicinanti vicinitvā passanti passitvā pāṭekkaṁ pavārenti āpatti dukkaṭassa.

“Being doubtful, they search for them. Searching for them, they see them. Seeing them, they invite separately: an offense of wrong doing.

te vematikā vicinanti vicinitvā passanti passitvā nassantete vinassantete ko tehi atthoti bhedapurekkhārā pavārenti āpatti thullaccayassa.

“Being doubtful, they search for them. Searching for them, they see them. Seeing them, (thinking,) ‘They are lost. They are destroyed. Who needs them?’ they invite separately, aiming at schism: a grave offense.

idha pana bhikkhave āvāsikā bhikkhū passanti āgantukānaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ āgantukākāraṁ āgantukaliṅgaṁ āgantukanimittaṁ āgantukuddesaṁ aññātakaṁ pattaṁ aññātakaṁ cīvaraṁ aññātakaṁ nisīdanaṁ pādānaṁ dhotaṁ udakanissekaṁ.

“There is the case where resident monks see evidence of incoming monks, traces and signs of resident monks, indications that there are resident monks—an unknown bowl, an unknown robe, an unknown sitting cloth, a splashing of foot-washing water.

passitvā vematikā honti atthi nu kho āgantukā bhikkhū natthi nu khoti.

On seeing this, they become doubtful: ‘Are there incoming monks or not?’

te vematikā na vicinanti avicinitvā pavārenti āpatti dukkaṭassa .pe.

“Being doubtful, they don’t search for them. Not searching, they invite: an offense of wrong doing. …

te vematikā vicinanti vicinitvā na passanti apassitvā pavārenti anāpatti.

“Being doubtful, they search for them. Searching for them, they don’t see them. Not seeing them, they invite: no offense.

te vematikā vicinanti vicinitvā passanti passitvā ekato pavārenti anāpatti.

“Being doubtful, they search for them. Searching for them, they see them. Seeing them, they invite together with them: no offense.

te vematikā vicinanti vicinitvā passanti passitvā pāṭekkaṁ pavārenti āpatti dukkaṭassa.

“Being doubtful, they search for them. Searching for them, they see them. Seeing them, they invite separately: an offense of wrong doing.

te vematikā vicinanti vicinitvā passanti passitvā nassantete vinassantete ko tehi atthoti bhedapurekkhārā pavārenti āpatti thullaccayassa.

“Being doubtful, they search for them. Searching for them, they see them. Seeing them, (thinking,) ‘They are lost. They are destroyed. Who needs them?’ they invite separately, aiming at schism: a grave offense.

idha pana bhikkhave āvāsikā bhikkhū suṇanti āgantukānaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ āgantukākāraṁ āgantukaliṅgaṁ āgantukanimittaṁ āgantukuddesaṁ āgacchantānaṁ padasaddaṁ upāhanāppoṭhanasaddaṁ ukkāsitasaddaṁ khipitasaddaṁ.

“There is the case where resident monks hear evidence of incoming monks, traces and signs of resident monks, indications that there are resident monks—The sound of approaching footsteps, the sound of leather footwear slapping (the ground), the sound of throat-clearing or sneezing.

sutvā vematikā honti atthi nu kho āgantukā bhikkhū natthi nu khoti.

On hearing this, they become doubtful: ‘Are there incoming monks or not?’

te vematikā na vicinanti avicinitvā pavārenti āpatti dukkaṭassa .pe.

“Being doubtful, they don’t search for them. Not searching, they invite: an offense of wrong doing. …

te vematikā vicinanti vicinitvā na passanti apassitvā pavārenti anāpatti.

“Being doubtful, they search for them. Searching for them, they don’t see them. Not seeing them, they invite: no offense.

te vematikā vicinanti vicinitvā passanti passitvā ekato pavārenti anāpatti.

“Being doubtful, they search for them. Searching for them, they see them. Seeing them, they invite together with them: no offense.

te vematikā vicinanti vicinitvā passanti passitvā pāṭekkaṁ pavārenti āpatti dukkaṭassa.

“Being doubtful, they search for them. Searching for them, they see them. Seeing them, they invite separately: an offense of wrong doing.

te vematikā vicinanti vicinitvā passanti passitvā nassantete vinassantete ko tehi atthoti bhedapurekkhārā pavārenti āpatti thullaccayassa.

“Being doubtful, they search for them. Searching for them, they see them. Seeing them, (thinking,) ‘They are lost. They are destroyed. Who needs them?’ they invite separately, aiming at schism: a grave offense.

136. nānāsaṁvāsakādīhi pavāraṇā

Performing the Invitation with (Monks) of a Separate Affiliation, etc. [Mv.II.34.10 BMC]

[241] idha pana bhikkhave āgantukā bhikkhū passanti āvāsike bhikkhū nānāsaṁvāsake.

“There is the case where incoming monks see resident monks of a separate affiliation.

te samānasaṁvāsakadiṭṭhiṁ paṭilabhanti samānasaṁvāsakadiṭṭhiṁ paṭilabhitvā na pucchanti apucchitvā ekato pavārenti anāpatti .pe.

They get the idea that they are of the same affiliation. Having gotten the idea that they are of the same affiliation, they don’t ask. Not having asked, they invite together: no offense. …

te pucchanti pucchitvā nābhivitaranti anabhivitaritvā ekato pavārenti āpatti dukkaṭassa.

“They ask. Having asked, they don’t resolve their differences. Not having resolved their differences1, they invite together: an offense of wrong doing.

te pucchanti pucchitvā nābhivitaranti anabhivitaritvā pāṭekkaṁ pavārenti anāpatti.

“They ask. Having asked, they don’t resolve their differences. Not having resolved their differences, they invite separately: no offense.

idha pana bhikkhave āgantukā bhikkhū passanti āvāsike bhikkhū samānasaṁvāsake.

“There is the case where incoming monks see resident monks of the same affiliation.

te nānāsaṁvāsakadiṭṭhiṁ paṭilabhanti nānāsaṁvāsakadiṭṭhiṁ paṭilabhitvā na pucchanti apucchitvā ekato pavārenti āpatti dukkaṭassa .pe.

“They get the idea that they are of a separate affiliation. Having gotten the idea that they are of a separate affiliation, they don’t ask. Not having asked, they invite together: an offense of wrong doing. …

te pucchanti pucchitvā abhivitaranti abhivitaritvā pāṭekkaṁ pavārenti āpatti dukkaṭassa.

“They ask. Having asked, they resolve the misunderstanding1. Having resolved the misunderstanding, they invite separately: an offense of wrong doing.

1. Here, the monks are already of the same affiliation, so abhivitarati has a slightly different meaning: that they clear up the misunderstanding.

te pucchanti pucchitvā abhivitaranti abhivitaritvā ekato pavārenti anāpatti.

“They ask. Having asked, they resolve the misunderstanding. Having resolved the misunderstanding, they invite together: no offense.

te pucchanti pucchitvā nābhivitaranti anabhivitaritvā pāṭekkaṁ pavārenti anāpatti.

“They ask. Having asked, they don’t resolve the misunderstanding. Having not resolved the misunderstanding, they invite separately: no offense1.

1. This last case appears only in the Thai edition, is not paralleled in Mv.II.34.11, nor below in the ‘resident monks seeing incoming monks’ section. But it could make sense if it were interpreted to mean that even though the monks discuss the matter, they still misunderstand that they are of separate affiliations.

idha pana bhikkhave āvāsikā bhikkhū passanti āgantuke bhikkhū nānāsaṁvāsake.

“There is the case where resident monks see incoming monks of a separate affiliation.

te samānasaṁvāsakadiṭṭhiṁ paṭilabhanti samānasaṁvāsakadiṭṭhiṁ paṭilabhitvā na pucchanti apucchitvā ekato pavārenti anāpatti .pe.

They get the idea that they are of the same affiliation. Having gotten the idea that they are of the same affiliation, they don’t ask. Not having asked, they invite together: no offense. …

te pucchanti pucchitvā nābhivitaranti anabhivitaritvā ekato pavārenti āpatti dukkaṭassa.

“They ask. Having asked, they don’t resolve their differences. Not having resolved their differences, they invite together: an offense of wrong doing.

te pucchanti pucchitvā nābhivitaranti anabhivitaritvā pāṭekkaṁ pavārenti anāpatti.

“They ask. Having asked, they don’t resolve their differences. Not having resolved their differences, they invite separately: no offense.

idha pana bhikkhave āvāsikā bhikkhū passanti āgantuke bhikkhū samānasaṁvāsake.

“There is the case where resident monks see incoming monks of the same affiliation.

te nānāsaṁvāsakadiṭṭhiṁ paṭilabhanti nānāsaṁvāsakadiṭṭhiṁ paṭilabhitvā na pucchanti apucchitvā ekato pavārenti āpatti dukkaṭassa .pe.

They get the idea that they are of a separate affiliation. Having gotten the idea that they are of a separate affiliation, they don’t ask. Not having asked, they invite together: an offense of wrong doing.

te pucchanti pucchitvā abhivitaranti abhivitaritvā pāṭekkaṁ pavārenti āpatti dukkaṭassa.

“They ask. Having asked, they resolve the misunderstanding. Having resolved the misunderstanding, they invite separately: an offense of wrong doing.

te pucchanti pucchitvā abhivitaranti abhivitaritvā ekato pavārenti anāpatti.

“They ask. Having asked, they resolve the misunderstanding. Having resolved the misunderstanding, they invite together: no offense.

137. na gantabbavāro

The List of (Cases in which One) Should not Go [Mv.II.35.1]

[242] na bhikkhave tadahupavāraṇāya sabhikkhukā āvāsā abhikkhuko āvāso gantabbo aññatra saṅghena aññatra antarāyā.

“Monks, on the day of the Invitation, one should not go from a residence with monks to a residence without monks unless going with a Saṅgha, unless there are obstructions1.

na bhikkhave tadahupavāraṇāya sabhikkhukā āvāsā abhikkhuko anāvāso gantabbo aññatra saṅghena aññatra antarāyā.

“Monks, on the day of the Invitation, one should not go from a residence with monks to a non-residence without monks unless going with a Saṅgha, unless there are obstructions.

na bhikkhave tadahupavāraṇāya sabhikkhukā āvāsā abhikkhuko āvāso vā anāvāso vā gantabbo aññatra saṅghena aññatra antarāyā.

“Monks, on the day of the Invitation, one should not go from a residence with monks to a residence or non-residence without monks unless going with a Saṅgha, unless there are obstructions.

na bhikkhave tadahupavāraṇāya sabhikkhukā anāvāsā abhikkhuko āvāso gantabbo aññatra saṅghena aññatra antarāyā.

“Monks, on the day of the Invitation, one should not go from a non-residence with monks to a residence without monks unless going with a Saṅgha, unless there are obstructions.

na bhikkhave tadahupavāraṇāya sabhikkhukā anāvāsā abhikkhuko anāvāso gantabbo aññatra saṅghena aññatra antarāyā.

“Monks, on the day of the Invitation, one should not go from a non-residence with monks to a non-residence without monks unless going with a Saṅgha, unless there are obstructions.

na bhikkhave tadahupavāraṇāya sabhikkhukā anāvāsā abhikkhuko āvāso vā anāvāso vā gantabbo aññatra saṅghena aññatra antarāyā.

“Monks, on the day of the Invitation, one should not go from a non-residence with monks to a residence or non-residence without monks unless going with a Saṅgha, unless there are obstructions.

na bhikkhave tadahupavāraṇāya sabhikkhukā āvāsā vā anāvāsā vā abhikkhuko āvāso gantabbo aññatra saṅghena aññatra antarāyā.

“Monks, on the day of the Invitation, one should not go from a residence or non-residence with monks to a residence without monks unless going with a Saṅgha, unless there are obstructions.

na bhikkhave tadahupavāraṇāya sabhikkhukā āvāsā vā anāvāsā vā abhikkhuko anāvāso gantabbo aññatra saṅghena aññatra antarāyā.

“Monks, on the day of the Invitation, one should not go from a residence or non-residence with monks to a non-residence without monks unless going with a Saṅgha, unless there are obstructions.

na bhikkhave tadahupavāraṇāya sabhikkhukā āvāsā vā anāvāsā vā abhikkhuko āvāso vā anāvāso vā gantabbo aññatra saṅghena aññatra antarāyā.

“Monks, on the day of the Invitation, one should not go from a residence or non-residence with monks to a residence or non-residence without monks unless going with a Saṅgha, unless there are obstructions.

na bhikkhave tadahupavāraṇāya sabhikkhukā āvāsā sabhikkhuko āvāso gantabbo yatthassu bhikkhū nānāsaṁvāsakā aññatra saṅghena aññatra antarāyā.

“Monks, on the day of the Invitation, one should not go from a residence with monks to a residence with monks, where the monks are of a separate affiliation, unless going with a Saṅgha, unless there are obstructions.

na bhikkhave tadahupavāraṇāya sabhikkhukā āvāsā sabhikkhuko anāvāso gantabbo yatthassu bhikkhū nānāsaṁvāsakā aññatra saṅghena aññatra antarāyā.

“Monks, on the day of the Invitation, one should not go from a residence with monks to a non-residence with monks, where the monks are of a separate affiliation, unless going with a Saṅgha, unless there are obstructions.

na bhikkhave tadahupavāraṇāya sabhikkhukā āvāsā sabhikkhuko āvāso vā anāvāso vā gantabbo yatthassu bhikkhū nānāsaṁvāsakā aññatra saṅghena aññatra antarāyā.

“Monks, on the day of the Invitation, one should not go from a residence with monks to a residence or non-residence with monks, where the monks are of a separate affiliation, unless going with a Saṅgha, unless there are obstructions.

na bhikkhave tadahupavāraṇāya sabhikkhukā anāvāsā sabhikkhuko āvāso .pe.

“Monks, on the day of the Invitation, (one should not go) from a non-residence with monks to residence with monks …

anāvāso .pe.

“to a non-residence with monks …

āvāso vā anāvāso vā gantabbo yatthassu bhikkhū nānāsaṁvāsakā aññatra saṅghena aññatra antarāyā.

“to a residence or non-residence with monks, where the monks are of a separate affiliation, unless going with a Saṅgha, unless there are obstructions.

na bhikkhave tadahupavāraṇāya sabhikkhukā āvāsā vā anāvāsā vā sabhikkhuko āvāso .pe.

“Monks, on the day of the Invitation, (one should not go) from a residence or non-residence with monks to residence with monks …

anāvāso .pe.

“to a non-residence with monks …

āvāso vā anāvāso vā gantabbo yatthassu bhikkhū nānāsaṁvāsakā aññatra saṅghena aññatra antarāyā.

“to a residence or non-residence with monks, where the monks are of a separate affiliation, unless going with a Saṅgha, unless there are obstructions.

138. gantabbavāro

The List of (Cases where One) May Go [Mv.II.35.5]

gantabbo bhikkhave tadahupavāraṇāya sabhikkhukā āvāsā sabhikkhuko āvāso .pe.

“Monks, on the day of the Invitation, one may go from a residence with monks to a residence with monks, …

anāvāso .pe.

“to a non-residence …

āvāso vā anāvāso vā yatthassu bhikkhū samānasaṁvāsakā yaṁ jaññā sakkomi ajjeva gantunti.

“to a residence or non-residence with monks, where the monks are of the same affiliation, and one knows, ‘I can arrive within the day.’

gantabbo bhikkhave tadahupavāraṇāya sabhikkhukā anāvāsā sabhikkhuko āvāso .pe.

“Monks, on the day of the Invitation, one may go from a non-residence with monks to a residence with monks, …

anāvāso .pe.

“to a non-residence …

āvāso vā anāvāso vā yatthassu bhikkhū samānasaṁvāsakā yaṁ jaññā sakkomi ajjeva gantunti.

“to a residence or non-residence with monks, where the monks are of the same affiliation, and one knows, ‘I can arrive within the day.’

gantabbo bhikkhave tadahupavāraṇāya sabhikkhukā āvāsā vā anāvāsā vā sabhikkhuko āvāso .pe.

“Monks, on the day of the Invitation, one may go from a residence or non-residence with monks to a residence with monks, …

anāvāso .pe.

“to a non-residence …

āvāso vā anāvāso vā yatthassu bhikkhū samānasaṁvāsakā yaṁ jaññā sakkomi ajjeva gantunti.

“to a residence or non-residence with monks, where the monks are of the same affiliation, and one knows, ‘I can arrive within the day.’

139. vajjanīyapuggalasandassanā (Mv.IV.14.1)

Enumeration of Excluded Individuals [Mv.II.36.1]

[243] na bhikkhave bhikkhuniyā nisinnaparisāya pavāretabbaṁ yo pavāreyya āpatti dukkaṭassa.

“Monks, you should not invite with a bhikkhunī seated in the assembly. Whoever should invite: an offense of wrong doing.

na bhikkhave sikkhamānāya na sāmaṇerassa na sāmaṇeriyā na sikkhaṁ paccakkhātakassa na antimavatthuṁ ajjhāpannakassa nisinnaparisāya pavāretabbaṁ yo pavāreyya āpatti dukkaṭassa.

“Monks, you should not invite with a female probationer … a novice … a female novice … one who has renounced the training … one who has committed an extreme (pārājika) offense seated in the assembly. Whoever should invite: an offense of wrong doing.

(Mv.IV.14.2) na bhikkhave āpattiyā adassane ukkhittakassa nisinnaparisāya pavāretabbaṁ yo pavāreyya yathādhammo kāretabbo.

“You should not invite with one who has been suspended for not seeing an offense seated in the assembly. Whoever should invite is to be dealt with in accordance with the rule (Pc 69).

na āpattiyā appaṭikamme ukkhittakassa na pāpikāya diṭṭhiyā appaṭinissagge ukkhittakassa nisinnaparisāya pavāretabbaṁ yo pavāreyya yathādhammo kāretabbo.

“You should not invite with one who has been suspended for not making amends for an offense … one who has been suspended for not relinquishing an evil view seated in the assembly. Whoever should invite is to be dealt with in accordance with the rule (Pc 69).

(Mv.IV.14.3) na paṇḍakassa nisinnaparisāya pavāretabbaṁ yo pavāreyya āpatti dukkaṭassa.

“You should not invite with a paṇḍaka seated in the assembly. Whoever should invite: an offense of wrong doing.

na theyyasaṁvāsakassa na titthiyapakkantakassa na tiracchānagatassa na mātughātakassa na pitughātakassa na arahantaghātakassa na bhikkhunīdūsakassa na saṅghabhedakassa na lohituppādakassa na ubhatobyañjanakassa nisinnaparisāya pavāretabbaṁ yo pavāreyya āpatti dukkaṭassa.

“You should not invite with a person in affiliation through theft … a monk who has gone over to another religion an animal … a matricide … a patricide … a murderer of an arahant … a molester of a bhikkhunī … a schismatic … one who has shed (a Tathāgata’s) blood … a hermaphrodite seated in the assembly. Whoever should invite: an offense of wrong doing.

(Mv.IV.14.4) na bhikkhave pārivāsikapavāraṇādānena pavāretabbaṁ aññatra avuṭṭhitāya parisāya.

“You should not invite with a stale giving of the invitation unless the assembly has not gotten up from its seats. [BMC]

na ca bhikkhave appavāraṇāya pavāretabbaṁ aññatra saṅghasāmaggiyāti.

“And, monks, you should not invite on a non-Invitation day unless for Saṅgha-unification.” [BMC]

dutiyabhāṇavāraṁ niṭṭhitaṁ.

The second recitation section is finished.

140. dvevācikādipavāraṇā (Mv.IV.15.1)

The Invitation with Two Statements, etc. [BMC]

[244] tena kho pana samayena kosalesu janapadesu aññatarasmiṁ āvāse tadahupavāraṇāya sañcarabhayaṁ [ME: savarabhayaṁ] ahosi.

Now on that occasion, at a certain residence in the Kosalan countryside, on the day of the Invitation, there was fear about Savaras1.

1. The Savaras were an indigenous tribe. A place called Savara is mentioned in the Milindapañhā, said to be inhabited by caṇḍalas, or outcastes, which is how indigenous tribes probably would have been categorized in the Vedic caste system. The Commentary to this passage explains savara as ‘forest people’.

bhikkhū nāsakkhiṁsu tevācikaṁ pavāretuṁ.

The monks couldn’t invite by three statements.

bhagavato etamatthaṁ ārocesuṁ.

They reported the matter to the Blessed One.

anujānāmi bhikkhave dvevācikaṁ pavāretunti.

“Monks, I allow that you invite by two statements.”

bāḷhataraṁ sañcarabhayaṁ ahosi.

There was even greater fear about Savaras.

bhikkhū nāsakkhiṁsu dvevācikaṁ pavāretuṁ.

The monks couldn’t invite by two statements.

bhagavato etamatthaṁ ārocesuṁ.

They reported the matter to the Blessed One.

anujānāmi bhikkhave ekavācikaṁ pavāretunti.

“I allow that you invite by one statement.”

bāḷhataraṁ sañcarabhayaṁ ahosi.

There was even greater fear about Savaras.

bhikkhū nāsakkhiṁsu ekavācikaṁ pavāretuṁ.

The monks couldn’t invite by one statement.

bhagavato etamatthaṁ ārocesuṁ.

They reported the matter to the Blessed One.

anujānāmi bhikkhave samānavassikaṁ pavāretunti.

“I allow you to invite by equal Rains1.”

1. This means that monks with an equal number of Rains (in seniority) would invite in unison, not, as one scholar has suggested, that the monks would break up into groups of monks with equal seniority and invite just with the monks in their group. To invite in such a way would defeat the purpose of the Invitation: to allow any monk in the Saṅgha to make an accusation against any other monk, if he has a reason to suspect him of an offense. Also, each group would be a faction, making the transaction factional, in violation of Mv.IV.3.1. I.B. Horner also misunderstands this passage, translating, “I allow you, monks, to invite those who keep the rains (all) together.”

(Mv.IV.15.2) tena kho pana samayena aññatarasmiṁ āvāse tadahupavāraṇāya manussehi dānaṁ dentehi yebhuyyena ratti khepitā hoti.

Now on that occasion, at a certain monastery on the day of the Invitation most of the day and night1 was spent with people giving gifts.

1. ratti means either ‘night’ or one period of day and night, which in English is called a ‘day’.

athakho tesaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ etadahosi imehi manussehi dānaṁ dentehi yebhuyyena ratti khepitā sace saṅgho tevācikaṁ pavāressati appavārito va saṅgho bhavissati athāyaṁ ratti vibhāyissati kathaṁ nu kho amhehi paṭipajjitabbanti.

Then the thought occurred to the monks, “Most of the day and night has been spent with these people giving gifts. If the Saṅgha invites by three statements, the night will end and the Saṅgha will not have (all) invited. What should we do?”

bhagavato etamatthaṁ ārocesuṁ.

They reported the matter to the Blessed One.

(Mv.IV.15.3) idha pana bhikkhave aññatarasmiṁ āvāse tadahupavāraṇāya manussehi dānaṁ dentehi yebhuyyena ratti khepitā hoti.

“Monks, there is the case where, at a certain monastery on the day of the Invitation, most of the day and night is spent with people giving gifts.

tatra ce bhikkhūnaṁ evaṁ hoti manussehi dānaṁ dentehi yebhuyyena ratti khepitā sace saṅgho tevācikaṁ pavāressati appavārito va saṅgho bhavissati athāyaṁ ratti vibhāyissatīti.

“If the thought occurs to the monks there, ‘Most of the day and night has been spent with people giving gifts. If the Saṅgha invites by three statements, the night will end and the Saṅgha will not have (all) invited,’

byattena bhikkhunā paṭibalena saṅgho ñāpetabbo

“(then) an experienced and competent monk should inform the Saṅgha:

suṇātu me bhante saṅgho manussehi dānaṁ dentehi yebhuyyena ratti khepitā.

“‘Venerable sirs, may the Saṅgha listen to me. Most of the day and night has been spent with people giving gifts.

sace saṅgho tevācikaṁ pavāressati appavārito va saṅgho bhavissati athāyaṁ ratti vibhāyissati.

“‘If the Saṅgha invites by three statements, the night will end and the Saṅgha will not have (all) invited.

yadi saṅghassa pattakallaṁ saṅgho dvevācikaṁ ekavācikaṁ samānavassikaṁ pavāreyyāti.

“‘If the Saṅgha is ready, it should invite by two statements … by one statement … by equal Rains.’

(Mv.IV.15.4) idha pana bhikkhave aññatarasmiṁ āvāse tadahupavāraṇāya bhikkhūhi dhammaṁ bhaṇantehi suttantikehi suttantaṁ saṅgāyantehi vinayadharehi vinayaṁ vinicchinantehi dhammakathikehi dhammaṁ sākacchantehi bhikkhūhi kalahaṁ karontehi yebhuyyena ratti khepitā hoti.

“Monks, there is the case where, at a certain monastery on the day of the Invitation most of the day and night is spent with the monks speaking Dhamma … with sutta-monks chanting the suttas together … with Vinaya experts analyzing the Vinaya … with Dhamma-speakers discussing the Dhamma … with the monks quarreling1.

1. kalahaṁ karoti can also mean ‘to make an uproar’. The Commentaries offer no explanation of what the monks might be quarreling about or what kind of uproar they might be making.

tatra ce bhikkhūnaṁ evaṁ hoti bhikkhūhi kalahaṁ karontehi yebhuyyena ratti khepitā sace saṅgho tevācikaṁ pavāressati appavārito va saṅgho bhavissati athāyaṁ ratti vibhāyissatīti.

“If the thought occurs to the monks there, ‘Most of the day and night has been spent with the monks making an uproar. If the Saṅgha invites by three statements, the night will end and the Saṅgha will not have (all) invited,’

byattena bhikkhunā paṭibalena saṅgho ñāpetabbo

“(then) an experienced and competent monk should inform the Saṅgha:

suṇātu me bhante saṅgho bhikkhūhi kalahaṁ karontehi yebhuyyena ratti khepitā.

“‘Venerable sirs, may the Saṅgha listen to me. Most of the day and night has been spent with the monks making an uproar.

sace saṅgho tevācikaṁ pavāressati appavārito va saṅgho bhavissati athāyaṁ ratti vibhāyissati.

“‘If the Saṅgha invites by three statements, the night will end and the Saṅgha will not have (all) invited.

yadi saṅghassa pattakallaṁ saṅgho dvevācikaṁ ekavācikaṁ samānavassikaṁ pavāreyyāti.

“‘If the Saṅgha is ready, it should invite by two statements … by one statement … by equal Rains.’”

(Mv.IV.15.5) tena kho pana samayena kosalesu janapadesu aññatarasmiṁ āvāse tadahupavāraṇāya mahābhikkhusaṅgho sannipatito hoti.

Now on that occasion, at a certain residence in the Kosalan countryside, on the day of the Invitation, a large Saṅgha of monks had gathered.

parittañca anovassikaṁ hoti mahā ca megho uggato hoti.

There was limited space protected from the rain, and a great cloud had risen up.

athakho tesaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ etadahosi ayaṁ kho mahābhikkhusaṅgho sannipatito parittañca anovassikaṁ mahā ca megho uggato sace saṅgho tevācikaṁ pavāressati appavārito va saṅgho bhavissati athāyaṁ megho pavassissati kathaṁ nu kho amhehi paṭipajjitabbanti.

Then the thought occurred to the monks, “This large Saṅgha of monks has gathered, there is limited space protected from the rain, and a great cloud has risen up. If the Saṅgha invites by three statements, the Saṅgha will not have (all) invited before this cloud rains down. What should we do?”

bhagavato etamatthaṁ ārocesuṁ.

They reported the matter to the Blessed One.

(Mv.IV.15.6) idha pana bhikkhave aññatarasmiṁ āvāse tadahupavāraṇāya mahābhikkhusaṅgho sannipatito hoti.

“Monks, there is the case where at a certain residence on the day of the Invitation a large Saṅgha of monks has gathered.

parittañca anovassikaṁ hoti mahā ca megho uggato hoti.

“There is limited space protected from the rain, and a great cloud has risen up.

tatra ce bhikkhūnaṁ evaṁ hoti ayaṁ kho mahābhikkhusaṅgho sannipatito parittañca anovassikaṁ mahā ca megho uggato sace saṅgho tevācikaṁ pavāressati appavārito va saṅgho bhavissati athāyaṁ megho pavassissatīti.

“If the thought occurs to the monks, ‘This large Saṅgha of monks has gathered, there is limited space protected from the rain, and a great cloud has risen up. If the Saṅgha invites by three statements, the Saṅgha will not have (all) invited before this cloud rains down,’

byattena bhikkhunā paṭibalena saṅgho ñāpetabbo

“(then) an experienced and competent monk should inform the Saṅgha:

suṇātu me bhante saṅgho ayaṁ mahābhikkhusaṅgho sannipatito.

“‘Venerable sirs, may the Saṅgha listen to me. This large Saṅgha of monks has gathered.

parittañca anovassikaṁ mahā ca megho uggato.

“‘There is limited space protected from the rain, and a great cloud has risen up.

sace saṅgho tevācikaṁ pavāressati appavārito va saṅgho bhavissati athāyaṁ megho pavassissati.

“‘If the Saṅgha invites by three statements, the Saṅgha will not have (all) invited before this cloud rains down.”

yadi saṅghassa pattakallaṁ saṅgho dvevācikaṁ ekavācikaṁ samānavassikaṁ pavāreyyāti.

“‘If the Saṅgha is ready, it should invite by two statements … by one statement … by equal Rains.’

(Mv.IV.15.7) idha pana bhikkhave aññatarasmiṁ āvāse tadahupavāraṇāya rājantarāyo hoti .pe.

“Monks, there is the case where at a certain residence on the day of the Invitation there is a king obstruction … [Mv.II.15.4]

corantarāyo hoti.

“there is a thief obstruction …

agyantarāyo hoti.

“there is a fire obstruction …

udakantarāyo hoti.

“there is a water obstruction …

manussantarāyo hoti.

“there is a human being obstruction …

amanussantarāyo hoti.

“there is a non-human being obstruction …

vāḷantarāyo hoti.

“there is a beast obstruction …

siriṁsapantarāyo hoti.

“there is a creeping-pest obstruction …

jīvitantarāyo hoti.

“there is a life obstruction …

brahmacariyantarāyo hoti.

“there is a celibacy obstruction.

tatra ce bhikkhūnaṁ evaṁ hoti ayaṁ kho brahmacariyantarāyo sace saṅgho tevācikaṁ pavāressati appavārito va saṅgho bhavissati athāyaṁ brahmacariyantarāyo bhavissatīti.

“If the thought occurs to the monks, ‘There is this celibacy-obstruction. If the Saṅgha invites by three statements, the Saṅgha will not have (all) invited before this celibacy-obstruction occurs,’

byattena bhikkhunā paṭibalena saṅgho ñāpetabbo

“(then) an experienced and competent monk should inform the Saṅgha:

suṇātu me bhante saṅgho ayaṁ brahmacariyantarāyo sace saṅgho tevācikaṁ pavāressati appavārito va saṅgho bhavissati athāyaṁ brahmacariyantarāyo bhavissati.

“‘Venerable sirs, may the Saṅgha listen to me. There is this celibacy-obstruction. If the Saṅgha invites by three statements, the Saṅgha will not have (all) invited before this celibacy-obstruction occurs.’

yadi saṅghassa pattakallaṁ saṅgho dvevācikaṁ ekavācikaṁ samānavassikaṁ pavāreyyāti.

“‘If the Saṅgha is ready, it should invite by two statements … by one statement … by equal Rains.’

141. pavāraṇāṭhapanaṁ (Mv.IV.16.1)

The Cancellation of the Invitation [BMC]

[245] tena kho pana samayena chabbaggiyā bhikkhū sāpattikā pavārenti.

Now on that occasion some Group-of-six monks, having offenses, invited.

bhagavato etamatthaṁ ārocesuṁ.

They reported the matter to the Blessed One.

na bhikkhave sāpattikena pavāretabbaṁ yo pavāreyya āpatti dukkaṭassa.

“Monks, one who has an offense should not invite. Whoever should invite: an offense of wrong doing.

anujānāmi bhikkhave yo sāpattiko pavāreti tassa okāsaṁ kārāpetvā āpattiyā codetunti.

“I allow when one with an offense is inviting that, having gotten him to give leave, one charge him with the offense.”

(Mv.IV.16.2) tena kho pana samayena chabbaggiyā bhikkhū okāsaṁ kārāpiyamānā na icchanti okāsaṁ kātuṁ.

Now on that occasion some Group-of-six monks, being asked to give leave, didn’t want to give leave.

bhagavato etamatthaṁ ārocesuṁ.

They reported the matter to the Blessed One.

anujānāmi bhikkhave okāsaṁ akarontassa pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapetuṁ

“I allow, when one does not give leave, that the Invitation be canceled. [BMC]

evañca pana bhikkhave ṭhapetabbā

“And, monks, it should be canceled like this:

tadahupavāraṇāya cātuddase vā paṇṇarase vā tasmiṁ puggale sammukhībhūte saṅghamajjhe udāharitabbaṁ

“On the day of the Invitation—the fourteenth or the fifteenth—face-to-face with the individual, in the midst of the Saṅgha, it should be announced,

suṇātu me bhante saṅgho itthannāmo puggalo sāpattiko pavāreti tassa pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapemi na tasmiṁ sammukhībhūte pavāretabbanti.

“‘Venerable sirs, may the Saṅgha listen to me. An individual named such-and-such is inviting with an offense. I cancel his Invitation. One should not invite when face-to-face with him.’

ṭhapitā hoti pavāraṇāti.

“His Invitation is canceled.”

(Mv.IV.16.3) tena kho pana samayena chabbaggiyā bhikkhū puramhākaṁ pesalā bhikkhū pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapentīti paṭikacceva suddhānaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ anāpattikānaṁ avatthusmiṁ akāraṇe pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapenti pavāritānampi pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapenti.

Now on that occasion some Group-of-six monks, (thinking,) “Before, the well-behaved monks canceled our Invitations”—without grounds, without reason—canceled the Invitation of pure monks without offenses as a precaution. [Mv.II.16.3]

bhagavato etamatthaṁ ārocesuṁ.

They reported the matter to the Blessed One.

na bhikkhave suddhānaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ anāpattikānaṁ avatthusmiṁ akāraṇe pavāraṇā ṭhapetabbā yo ṭhapeyya āpatti dukkaṭassa.

“Monks, one should not—without grounds, without reason—cancel the Invitation of pure monks without offenses. Whoever should cancel it: an offense of wrong doing.

na ca bhikkhave pavāritānampi pavāraṇā ṭhapetabbā yo ṭhapeyya āpatti dukkaṭassa.

“And one should not cancel the Invitation of those who have already made an Invitation. Whoever should cancel it: an offense of wrong doing.

(Mv.IV.16.4) [246] evaṁ kho bhikkhave ṭhapitā hoti pavāraṇā evaṁ aṭṭhapitā.

“Monks, the Invitation is (properly) canceled like this; and not (properly) canceled like this:

kathañca bhikkhave aṭṭhapitā hoti pavāraṇā.

“And how, monks, is the Invitation not (properly) canceled?

tevācikāya ce bhikkhave pavāraṇāya bhāsitāya lapitāya pariyositāya pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapeti aṭṭhapitā hoti pavāraṇā

“Monks, if one cancels (another’s) Invitation when the Invitation by three statements has been spoken, uttered, and concluded, then the Invitation is not canceled.

dvevācikāya ce bhikkhave ekavācikāya ce bhikkhave samānavassikāya ce bhikkhave pavāraṇāya bhāsitāya lapitāya pariyositāya pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapeti aṭṭhapitā hoti pavāraṇā.

“Monks, if one cancels (another’s) Invitation when the Invitation by two statements … by one statement … by equal Rains has been spoken, uttered, and concluded, then the Invitation is not canceled.

evaṁ kho bhikkhave aṭṭhapitā hoti pavāraṇā.

“In this way, monks, the Invitation is not (properly) canceled.

(Mv.IV.16.5) kathañca bhikkhave ṭhapitā hoti pavāraṇā.

“And how, monks, is the Invitation (properly) canceled?

tevācikāya ce bhikkhave pavāraṇāya bhāsitāya lapitāya apariyositāya pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapeti ṭhapitā hoti pavāraṇā.

“Monks, if one cancels (another’s) Invitation when the Invitation by three statements is being spoken, uttered, but has not been concluded, then the Invitation is canceled.

dvevācikāya ce bhikkhave ekavācikāya ce bhikkhave samānavassikāya ce bhikkhave pavāraṇāya bhāsitāya lapitāya apariyositāya pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapeti ṭhapitā hoti pavāraṇā.

“Monks, if one cancels (another’s) Invitation when the Invitation by two statements … by one statement … by equal Rains is being spoken, uttered, but has not been concluded, then the Invitation is canceled.

evaṁ kho bhikkhave ṭhapitā hoti pavāraṇā.

“In this way, monks, the Invitation is (properly) canceled.

(Mv.IV.16.6) [247] idha pana bhikkhave tadahupavāraṇāya bhikkhu bhikkhussa pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapeti.

“Monks, there is the case where, on the day of the Invitation, a monk cancels (another) monk’s Invitation. [BMC]

tañce bhikkhuṁ aññe bhikkhū jānanti ayaṁ kho āyasmā aparisuddhakāyasamācāro aparisuddhavacīsamācāro aparisuddhāajīvo bālo abyatto na paṭibalo anuyuñjiyamāno anuyogaṁ dātunti.

“If the other monks know of that monk, ‘This venerable one is impure in his bodily conduct, impure in his verbal conduct, impure in his livelihood, inexperienced and incompetent. He is unable, when being brought to account, to give an account (of what happened),’

alaṁ bhikkhu mā bhaṇḍanaṁ mā kalahaṁ mā viggahaṁ mā vivādanti omadditvā saṅghena pavāretabbaṁ.

“then, having blocked him, (saying,) ‘Enough, monk. Don’t (cause) strife; don’t (cause) an uproar; don’t (cause) a clash; don’t dispute,’ the Saṅgha should invite.

(Mv.IV.16.7) idha pana bhikkhave tadahupavāraṇāya bhikkhu bhikkhussa pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapeti.

“Monks, there is the case where, on the day of the Invitation, a monk cancels (another) monk’s Invitation.

tañce bhikkhuṁ aññe bhikkhū jānanti ayaṁ kho āyasmā parisuddhakāyasamācāro aparisuddhavacīsamācāro aparisuddhāajīvo bālo abyatto na paṭibalo anuyuñjiyamāno anuyogaṁ dātunti.

“If the other monks know of that monk, ‘This venerable one is pure in his bodily conduct, impure in his verbal conduct, impure in his livelihood, inexperienced and incompetent. He is unable, when being brought to account, to give an account,’

alaṁ bhikkhu mā bhaṇḍanaṁ mā kalahaṁ mā viggahaṁ mā vivādanti omadditvā saṅghena pavāretabbaṁ.

“then, having blocked him, (saying,) ‘Enough, monk. Don’t (cause) strife; don’t (cause) an uproar; don’t (cause) a clash; don’t dispute,’ the Saṅgha should invite.

(Mv.IV.16.8) idha pana bhikkhave tadahupavāraṇāya bhikkhu bhikkhussa pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapeti.

“Monks, there is the case where, on the day of the Invitation, a monk cancels (another) monk’s Invitation.

tañce bhikkhuṁ aññe bhikkhū jānanti ayaṁ kho āyasmā parisuddhakāyasamācāro parisuddhavacīsamācāro aparisuddhāajīvo bālo abyatto na paṭibalo anuyuñjiyamāno anuyogaṁ dātunti.

“If the other monks know of that monk, ‘This venerable one is pure in his bodily conduct, pure in his verbal conduct, impure in his livelihood, inexperienced and incompetent. He is unable, when being brought to account, to give an account,’

alaṁ bhikkhu mā bhaṇḍanaṁ mā kalahaṁ mā viggahaṁ mā vivādanti omadditvā saṅghena pavāretabbaṁ.

“then, having blocked him, (saying,) ‘Enough, monk. Don’t (cause) strife; don’t (cause) an uproar; don’t (cause) a clash; don’t dispute,’ the Saṅgha should invite.

(Mv.IV.16.9) idha pana bhikkhave tadahupavāraṇāya [ME inserts: bhikkhu] bhikkhussa pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapeti.

“Monks, there is the case where, on the day of the Invitation, a monk cancels (another) monk’s Invitation.

tañce bhikkhuṁ aññe bhikkhū jānanti ayaṁ kho āyasmā parisuddhakāyasamācāro parisuddhavacīsamācāro parisuddhāajīvo bālo abyatto na paṭibalo anuyuñjiyamāno anuyogaṁ dātunti.

“If the other monks know of that monk, ‘This venerable one is pure in his bodily conduct, pure in his verbal conduct, pure in his livelihood, inexperienced and incompetent. He is unable, when being brought to account, to give an account,’

alaṁ bhikkhu mā bhaṇḍanaṁ mā kalahaṁ mā viggahaṁ mā vivādanti omadditvā saṅghena pavāretabbaṁ.

“then, having blocked him, (saying,) ‘Enough, monk. Don’t (cause) strife; don’t (cause) an uproar; don’t (cause) a clash; don’t dispute,’ the Saṅgha should invite.

(Mv.IV.16.10) idha pana bhikkhave tadahupavāraṇāya bhikkhu bhikkhussa pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapeti.

“Monks, there is the case where, on the day of the Invitation, a monk cancels (another) monk’s Invitation.

tañce bhikkhuṁ aññe bhikkhū jānanti ayaṁ kho āyasmā parisuddhakāyasamācāro parisuddhavacīsamācāro parisuddhāajīvo paṇḍito byatto medhāvī paṭibalo anuyuñjiyamāno anuyogaṁ dātunti.

“If the other monks know of that monk, ‘This venerable one is pure in his bodily conduct, pure in his verbal conduct, pure in his livelihood, wise, experienced and competent. He is able, when being brought to account, to give an account,’

so evamassa vacanīyo yaṁ kho tvaṁ āvuso imassa bhikkhuno pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapesi kimhi naṁ ṭhapesi sīlavipattiyā ṭhapesi ācāravipattiyā ṭhapesi diṭṭhivipattiyā ṭhapesīti.

“then he should be asked, ‘Friend, the invitation of this monk that you are canceling: Why are you canceling it? Are you canceling it because of a defect in virtue, are you canceling it because of a defect in conduct, (or) are you canceling it because of a defect in view?’

(Mv.IV.16.11) so ce evaṁ vadeyya sīlavipattiyā ṭhapemi ācāravipattiyā ṭhapemi diṭṭhivipattiyā ṭhapemīti.

“If he should say, ‘I am canceling it because of a defect in virtue … because of a defect in conduct … (or) because of a defect in view,’

so evamassa vacanīyo jānāti panāyasmā sīlavipattiṁ jānāti ācāravipattiṁ jānāti diṭṭhivipattinti.

“then he should be asked, ‘But does the venerable one know what a defect in virtue is, what a defect in conduct is, what a defect in view is?’

so ce evaṁ vadeyya jānāmi kho ahaṁ āvuso sīlavipattiṁ jānāmi ācāravipattiṁ jānāmi diṭṭhivipattinti.

“If he should say, ‘Friends, I know what a defect in virtue is, what a defect in conduct is, what a defect in view is,’

so evamassa vacanīyo katamā panāvuso sīlavipatti katamā ācāravipatti katamā diṭṭhivipattīti.

“then he should be asked, “Then, friend, which is a defect in virtue, which is a defect in conduct, which is a defect in view?’

(Mv.IV.16.12) so ce evaṁ vadeyya cattāri pārājikāni terasa saṅghādisesā ayaṁ sīlavipatti thullaccayaṁ pācittiyaṁ pāṭidesanīyaṁ dukkaṭaṁ dubbhāsitaṁ ayaṁ ācāravipatti micchādiṭṭhi antaggāhikā diṭṭhi ayaṁ diṭṭhivipattīti.

“If he should say, ‘The four pārājikas and the thirteen saṅghādisesas: This is a defect in virtue. A thullaccaya, a pācittiya, a pāṭidesanīya, a dukkaṭa, a dubbhāsita: This is a defect in conduct. Wrong view and a view holding to an extreme: This is a defect in view,’ [BMC]

so evamassa vacanīyo yaṁ kho tvaṁ āvuso imassa bhikkhuno pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapesi diṭṭhena ṭhapesi sutena ṭhapesi parisaṅkāya ṭhapesīti.

“then he should be asked, ‘Friend, the invitation of this bhikkhu that you are canceling, are you canceling it on the basis of what was seen, are you canceling it on the basis of what was heard, (or) are you canceling it on the basis of what is suspected?’

(Mv.IV.16.13) so ce evaṁ vadeyya diṭṭhena vā ṭhapemi sutena vā ṭhapemi parisaṅkāya vā ṭhapemīti.

“If he should say, ‘I am canceling it on the grounds of what was seen’ or ‘I am canceling it on the grounds of what was heard’ or ‘I am canceling it on the grounds of what is suspected,’

so evamassa vacanīyo yaṁ kho tvaṁ āvuso imassa bhikkhuno diṭṭhena pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapesi kinte diṭṭhaṁ kinti te diṭṭhaṁ kadā te diṭṭhaṁ kattha te diṭṭhaṁ pārājikaṁ ajjhāpajjanto diṭṭho saṅghādisesaṁ ajjhāpajjanto diṭṭho thullaccayaṁ pācittiyaṁ pāṭidesanīyaṁ dukkaṭaṁ dubbhāsitaṁ ajjhāpajjanto diṭṭho kattha ca tvaṁ ahosi kattha cāyaṁ bhikkhu ahosi kiñci tvaṁ karosi kiñcāyaṁ bhikkhu karotīti.

“then he should be asked, ‘Friend, the invitation of this bhikkhu that you are canceling on the grounds of what was seen: What did you see? What exactly did you see? When did you see it? Where did you see it? Was he seen committing a pārājika? Was he seen committing a saṅghādisesa? Was he seen committing a thullaccaya, a pācittiya, a pāṭidesanīya, a dukkaṭa, (or) a dubbhāsita? And where were you? And where was this monk? And what were you doing? And what was this monk doing?’

(Mv.IV.16.14) so ce evaṁ vadeyya na kho ahaṁ āvuso imassa bhikkhuno diṭṭhena pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapemi apica sutena pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapemīti.

“If he should say, ‘It’s not that I’m canceling the invitation of this bhikkhu on the grounds of what was seen. It’s actually on the grounds of what was heard that I’m canceling (his) invitation,’

so evamassa vacanīyo yaṁ kho tvaṁ āvuso imassa bhikkhuno sutena pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapesi kinte sutaṁ kinti te sutaṁ kadā te sutaṁ kattha te sutaṁ pārājikaṁ ajjhāpannoti sutaṁ saṅghādisesaṁ ajjhāpannoti sutaṁ thullaccayaṁ pācittiyaṁ pāṭidesanīyaṁ dukkaṭaṁ dubbhāsitaṁ ajjhāpannoti sutaṁ

“then he should be asked, ‘Friend, the invitation of this monk that you are canceling on the grounds of what was heard: What did you hear? What exactly did you hear? When did you hear it? Where did you hear it? Was he heard to have committed a pārājika? Was he heard to have committed a saṅghādisesa? Was he heard to have committed a thullaccaya, a pācittiya, a pāṭidesanīya, a dukkaṭa, (or) a dubbhāsita?

bhikkhussa sutaṁ bhikkhuniyā sutaṁ sikkhamānāya sutaṁ sāmaṇerassa sutaṁ sāmaṇeriyā sutaṁ upāsakassa sutaṁ upāsikāya sutaṁ rājūnaṁ sutaṁ rājamahāmattānaṁ sutaṁ titthiyānaṁ sutaṁ titthiyasāvakānaṁ sutanti.

“‘Was this heard from a monk? Was this heard from a bhikkhunī? … from one in training? … from a male novice? … from a female novice? … from a male lay follower? … from a female lay follower? … from kings? … from king’s ministers? … from the leaders of other sects? … from the disciples of other sects?’

(Mv.IV.16.15) so ce evaṁ vadeyya na kho ahaṁ āvuso imassa bhikkhuno sutena pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapemi apica parisaṅkāya pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapemīti.

“If he should say, ‘It’s not that I’m canceling the invitation of this monk on the grounds of what was heard. It’s actually on the grounds of what is suspected that I’m canceling (his) invitation,’

so evamassa vacanīyo yaṁ kho tvaṁ āvuso imassa bhikkhuno parisaṅkāya pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapesi kiṁ parisaṅkasi kinti parisaṅkasi kadā parisaṅkasi kattha parisaṅkasi pārājikaṁ ajjhāpannoti parisaṅkasi saṅghādisesaṁ ajjhāpannoti parisaṅkasi thullaccayaṁ pācittiyaṁ pāṭidesanīyaṁ dukkaṭaṁ dubbhāsitaṁ ajjhāpannoti parisaṅkasi

“then he should be asked, ‘Friend, the invitation of this monk that you are canceling on the grounds of what is suspected: What do you suspect? What exactly do you suspect? When do you suspect (it happened)? Where do you suspect (it happened)? Do you suspect him to have committed a pārājika? Do you suspect him to have committed a saṅghādisesa? Do you suspect him to have committed a thullaccaya, a pācittiya, a pāṭidesanīya, a dukkaṭa, (or) a dubbhāsita?

(Mv.IV.16.16) bhikkhussa sutvā parisaṅkasi bhikkhuniyā sutvā parisaṅkasi sikkhamānāya sutvā parisaṅkasi sāmaṇerassa sutvā parisaṅkasi sāmaṇeriyā sutvā parisaṅkasi upāsakassa sutvā parisaṅkasi upāsikāya sutvā parisaṅkasi rājūnaṁ sutvā parisaṅkasi rājamahāmattānaṁ sutvā parisaṅkasi titthiyānaṁ sutvā parisaṅkasi titthiyasāvakānaṁ sutvā parisaṅkasīti.

“‘Do you suspect from having heard a monk? Do you suspect from having heard a bhikkhunī? … one in training? … a male novice? … a female novice? … a male lay follower? … a female lay follower? … kings? … king’s ministers? … the leaders of other sects? … the disciples of other sects?’

so ce evaṁ vadeyya na kho ahaṁ āvuso imassa bhikkhuno parisaṅkāya pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapemi apica ahampi na jānāmi kenapāhaṁ imassa bhikkhuno pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapemīti.

“If he should say, ‘It’s not that I’m canceling the invitation of this bhikkhu on the grounds of what is suspected. In fact, even I don’t know on what grounds I’m canceling the invitation of this monk,”

so ce bhikkhave codako bhikkhu anuyogena viññūnaṁ sabrahmacārīnaṁ cittaṁ na ārādheti ananuvādo cudito bhikkhūti alaṁ vacanāya.

“then if the monk making the charge does not satisfy the minds of his observant fellows in the holy life with his account, it is enough to say that the monk who has been charged does not stand accused.

so ce bhikkhave codako bhikkhu anuyogena viññūnaṁ sabrahmacārīnaṁ cittaṁ ārādheti sānuvādo cudito bhikkhūti alaṁ vacanāya.

“But if the monk making the charge does satisfy the minds of his observant fellows in the holy life with his account, then it is enough to say that the monk who has been charged stands accused.

(Mv.IV.16.17) so ce bhikkhave codako bhikkhu amūlakena pārājikena anuddhaṁsitaṁ paṭijānāti saṅghādisesaṁ āropetvā saṅghena pavāretabbaṁ.

“If the monk making the charge charges him with an unfounded pārājika offense, then having initiated the procedure for a saṅghadisesa, the Saṅgha should invite.

so ce bhikkhave codako bhikkhu amūlakena saṅghādisesena anuddhaṁsitaṁ paṭijānāti yathādhammaṁ kārāpetvā saṅghena pavāretabbaṁ.

“If the monk making the charge charges him with an unfounded saṅghadisesa offense, then, having dealt with him in accordance with the rule (Pc 76), the Saṅgha should invite.

so ce bhikkhave codako bhikkhu amūlakena thullaccayena pācittiyena pāṭidesanīyena dukkaṭena dubbhāsitena anuddhaṁsitaṁ paṭijānāti yathādhammaṁ kārāpetvā saṅghena pavāretabbaṁ.

“If the monk making the charge charges him with an unfounded thullaccaya, pācittiya, pāṭidesanīya, dukkaṭa, (or) dubbhāsita offense, then, having dealt with him in accordance with the rule (Pc 76), the Saṅgha should invite.

(Mv.IV.16.18) so ce bhikkhave cudito bhikkhu pārājikaṁ ajjhāpannoti paṭijānāti nāsetvā saṅghena pavāretabbaṁ.

“If the monk who has been charged, having fallen into a pārājika offense, admits it, then having expelled him, the Saṅgha should invite.

so ce bhikkhave cudito bhikkhu saṅghādisesaṁ ajjhāpannoti paṭijānāti saṅghādisesaṁ āropetvā saṅghena pavāretabbaṁ.

“If the monk who has been charged, having fallen into a saṅghadisesa offense, admits it, then having initiated the procedure for a saṅghadisesa, the Saṅgha should invite.

so ce bhikkhave cudito bhikkhu thullaccayaṁ pācittiyaṁ pāṭidesanīyaṁ dukkaṭaṁ dubbhāsitaṁ ajjhāpannoti paṭijānāti yathādhammaṁ kārāpetvā saṅghena pavāretabbaṁ.

“If the monk who has been charged, having fallen into a thullaccaya, pācittiya, pāṭidesanīya, dukkaṭa, (or) dubbhāsita offense, admits it, then, having dealt with him in accordance with the rule, the Saṅgha should invite.”

142. thullaccayavatthukādi (Mv.IV.16.19)

The Case of the Thullaccaya Offense, etc. [BMC]

[248] idha pana bhikkhave bhikkhu tadahupavāraṇāya thullaccayaṁ ajjhāpanno hoti.

“Monks, there is the case where, on the day of the Invitation, a monk has fallen into a thullaccaya offense.

ekacce bhikkhū thullaccayadiṭṭhino honti ekacce bhikkhū saṅghādisesadiṭṭhino honti.

“Some monks are of the view that it is a thullaccaya offense; some are of the view that it is a saṅghadisesa offense.

ye te bhikkhave bhikkhū thullaccayadiṭṭhino tehi so bhikkhave bhikkhu ekamantaṁ apanetvā yathādhammaṁ kārāpetvā saṅghaṁ upasaṅkamitvā evamassa vacanīyo yaṁ kho so āvuso bhikkhu āpattiṁ āpanno sāssa yathādhammaṁ paṭikatā yadi saṅghassa pattakallaṁ saṅgho pavāreyyāti.

“Those monks who are of the view that it is a thullaccaya offense should lead the monk off to one side and, having dealt with him in accordance with the rule, return to the Saṅgha and announce, ‘Friends, the offense that that monk fell into—he has made amends for it in accordance with the rule. If the Saṅgha is ready, it should invite.’

sāssa yathādhammaṁ paṭikatāti ettakameva vatvā pavārethāti vattabbā, asukā nāma āpattīti idaṁ pana na vattabbaṁ, etañhi kalahassa mukhaṁ hoti.

“He has made amends for it in accordance with the rule”: they should say just that much, then say, “May you invite.” “It’s an offense called such-and-such,” shouldn’t be said—for this is the opening for an argument.

(Mv.IV.16.20) idha pana bhikkhave bhikkhu tadahupavāraṇāya thullaccayaṁ ajjhāpanno hoti.

“Monks, there is the case where, on the day of the Invitation, a monk has fallen into a thullaccaya offense.

ekacce bhikkhū thullaccayadiṭṭhino honti ekacce bhikkhū pācittiyadiṭṭhino honti ekacce bhikkhū thullaccayadiṭṭhino honti ekacce bhikkhū pāṭidesanīyadiṭṭhino honti ekacce bhikkhū thullaccayadiṭṭhino honti ekacce bhikkhū dukkaṭadiṭṭhino honti ekacce bhikkhū thullaccayadiṭṭhino honti ekacce bhikkhū dubbhāsitadiṭṭhino honti.

“Some monks are of the view that it is a thullaccaya offense; some are of the view that it is a pācittiya offense … Some monks are of the view that it is a thullaccaya offense; some are of the view that it is a pāṭidesanīya offense … Some monks are of the view that it is a thullaccaya offense; some are of the view that it is a dukkaṭa offense … Some monks are of the view that it is a thullaccaya offense; some are of the view that it is a dubbhāsita offense.

ye te bhikkhave bhikkhū thullaccayadiṭṭhino tehi so bhikkhave bhikkhu ekamantaṁ apanetvā yathādhammaṁ kārāpetvā saṅghaṁ upasaṅkamitvā evamassa vacanīyo yaṁ kho so āvuso bhikkhu āpattiṁ āpanno sāssa yathādhammaṁ paṭikatā yadi saṅghassa pattakallaṁ saṅgho pavāreyyāti.

“Those monks who are of the view that it is a thullaccaya offense should lead the monk off to one side and, having dealt with him in accordance with the rule, return to the Saṅgha and announce, ‘Friends, the offense that that monk fell into—he has made amends for it in accordance with the rule. If the Saṅgha is ready, it should invite.’

(Mv.IV.16.21) idha pana bhikkhave bhikkhu tadahupavāraṇāya pācittiyaṁ ajjhāpanno hoti pāṭidesanīyaṁ ajjhāpanno hoti dukkaṭaṁ ajjhāpanno hoti dubbhāsitaṁ ajjhāpanno hoti.

“Monks, there is the case where, on the day of the Invitation, a monk has fallen into a pācittiya offense … has fallen into a pāṭidesanīya offense … has fallen into a dukkaṭa offense … has fallen into a dubbhāsita offense.

ekacce bhikkhū dubbhāsitadiṭṭhino honti ekacce bhikkhū saṅghādisesadiṭṭhino honti.

“Some monks are of the view that it is a dubbhāsita offense; some are of the view that it is a saṅghadisesa offense.

ye te bhikkhave bhikkhū dubbhāsitadiṭṭhino tehi so bhikkhave bhikkhu ekamantaṁ apanetvā yathādhammaṁ kārāpetvā saṅghaṁ upasaṅkamitvā evamassa vacanīyo yaṁ kho so āvuso bhikkhu āpattiṁ āpanno sāssa yathādhammaṁ paṭikatā yadi saṅghassa pattakallaṁ saṅgho pavāreyyāti.

“Those monks who are of the view that it is a dubbhāsita offense should lead the monk off to one side and, having dealt with him in accordance with the rule, return to the Saṅgha and announce, ‘Friends, the offense that that monk fell into—he has made amends for it in accordance with the rule. If the Saṅgha is ready, it should invite.’

(Mv.IV.16.22) idha pana bhikkhave bhikkhu tadahupavāraṇāya dubbhāsitaṁ ajjhāpanno hoti.

“Monks, there is the case where, on the day of the Invitation, a monk has fallen into a dubbhāsita offense.

ekacce bhikkhū dubbhāsitadiṭṭhino honti ekacce bhikkhū thullaccayadiṭṭhino honti ekacce bhikkhū dubbhāsitadiṭṭhino honti ekacce bhikkhū pācittiyadiṭṭhino honti ekacce bhikkhū dubbhāsitadiṭṭhino honti ekacce bhikkhū pāṭidesanīyadiṭṭhino honti ekacce bhikkhū dubbhāsitadiṭṭhino honti ekacce bhikkhū dukkaṭadiṭṭhino honti.

“Some monks are of the view that it is a dubbhāsita offense; some are of the view that it is a thullaccaya offense … Some monks are of the view that it is a dubbhāsita offense; some are of the view that it is a pācittiya offense … Some monks are of the view that it is a dubbhāsita offense; some are of the view that it is a pāṭidesanīya offense … Some monks are of the view that it is a dubbhāsita offense; some are of the view that it is a dukkaṭa offense.

ye te bhikkhave bhikkhū dubbhāsitadiṭṭhino tehi so bhikkhave bhikkhu ekamantaṁ apanetvā yathādhammaṁ kārāpetvā saṅghaṁ upasaṅkamitvā evamassa vacanīyo yaṁ kho so āvuso bhikkhu āpattiṁ āpanno sāssa yathādhammaṁ paṭikatā yadi saṅghassa pattakallaṁ saṅgho pavāreyyāti.

“Those monks who are of the view that it is a dubbhāsita offense should lead the monk off to one side and, having dealt with him in accordance with the rule, return to the Saṅgha and announce, ‘Friends, the offense that that monk fell into—he has made amends for it in accordance with the rule. If the Saṅgha is ready, it should invite.’

143. vatthuṭhapanādi (Mv.IV.16.23)

Shelving a Matter, etc. [BMC]

[249] idha pana bhikkhave bhikkhu tadahupavāraṇāya saṅghamajjhe udāhareyya suṇātu me bhante saṅgho idaṁ vatthuṁ paññāyati na puggalo yadi saṅghassa pattakallaṁ vatthuṁ ṭhapetvā saṅgho pavāreyyāti.

“Monks, there is the case where, on the day of the Invitation, a monk announces in the midst of the Saṅgha, ‘Venerable sirs, may the Saṅgha listen to me. This matter1 is known, but the individual is not. If the Saṅgha is ready, then, having shelved the matter, the Saṅgha should invite.

1. i.e., which particular offense was committed.

so evamassa vacanīyo bhagavatā kho āvuso visuddhānaṁ pavāraṇā paññattā sace vatthuṁ paññāyati na puggalo idāneva naṁ vadehīti.

“He should be told, ‘The Blessed One has laid down the Invitation for those who are pure. If the matter is known but not the individual, speak about it right now.’

(Mv.IV.16.24) idha pana bhikkhave bhikkhu tadahupavāraṇāya saṅghamajjhe udāhareyya suṇātu me bhante saṅgho ayaṁ puggalo paññāyati na vatthuṁ yadi saṅghassa pattakallaṁ puggalaṁ ṭhapetvā saṅgho pavāreyyāti.

“Monks, there is the case where, on the day of the Invitation, a monk announces in the midst of the Saṅgha, ‘Venerable sirs, may the Saṅgha listen to me. This individual is known, but the matter is not. If the Saṅgha is ready, then, having excluded1 this individual, the Saṅgha should invite.

1. This is the same word, ṭhapetvā, that is translated as ‘shelve’ above.

so evamassa vacanīyo bhagavatā kho āvuso samaggānaṁ pavāraṇā paññattā sace puggalo paññāyati na vatthuṁ idāneva naṁ vadehīti.

“He should be told, ‘The Blessed One has laid down the Invitation for those who are united. If the individual is known but not the matter, speak about it right now.’

(Mv.IV.16.25) idha pana bhikkhave bhikkhu tadahupavāraṇāya saṅghamajjhe udāhareyya suṇātu me bhante saṅgho idaṁ vatthuñca puggalo ca paññāyati yadi saṅghassa pattakallaṁ vatthuñca puggalañca ṭhapetvā saṅgho pavāreyyāti.

“Monks, there is the case where, on the day of the Invitation, a monk announces in the midst of the Saṅgha, ‘Venerable sirs, may the Saṅgha listen to me. Both the matter and the individual are known. If the Saṅgha is ready, then, having shelved this matter and excluded this individual, the Saṅgha should invite.

so evamassa vacanīyo bhagavatā kho āvuso visuddhānañca samaggānañca pavāraṇā paññattā sace vatthuñca puggalo ca paññāyati idāneva naṁ vadehīti.

“He should be told, ‘The Blessed One has laid down the Invitation for those who are pure and united. If both the matter and the individual are known, speak about it right now.’

(Mv.IV.16.26) pubbe ce bhikkhave pavāraṇāya vatthuṁ paññāyati pacchā puggalo kallaṁ vacanāya.

“If the matter is known before the Invitation, but the individual afterward, it is proper to speak up1.

1. In other words, the issue can be brought up later. [BMC]

pubbe ce bhikkhave pavāraṇāya puggalo paññāyati pacchā vatthuṁ kallaṁ vacanāya.

“If the individual is known before the Invitation, but the matter afterward, it is proper to speak up.

pubbe ce bhikkhave pavāraṇāya vatthuñca puggalo ca paññāyati tañce katāya pavāraṇāya ukkoṭeti ukkoṭanakaṁ pācittiyanti.

“If both the matter and the individual are known before the Invitation, and if one opens (the issue) up after the Invitation is done, then there is a pācittiya for opening up (Pc 63).”

144. bhaṇḍanakārakavatthu (Mv.IV.17.1)

The Case of Makers of Quarrels [BMC]

[250] tena kho pana samayena sambahulā sandiṭṭhā sambhattā bhikkhū kosalesu janapadesu aññatarasmiṁ āvāse vassaṁ upagacchiṁsu.

Now on that occasion several monks, close friends, entered the Rains at a certain monastery in the Kosalan countryside.

tesaṁ samantā aññe bhikkhū bhaṇḍanakārakā kalahakārakā vivādakārakā bhassakārakā saṅghe adhikaraṇakārakā vassaṁ upagacchiṁsu mayaṁ tesaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ vassaṁ vutthānaṁ pavāraṇāya pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapessāmāti.

Near to them, other monks—makers of quarrels, strife, disputes, dissension, and issues in the Saṅgha—entered the Rains, (thinking,) “When those monks have completed the Rains, at their Invitation, we will cancel their invitations.”

assosuṁ kho te bhikkhū amhākaṁ kira samantā aññe bhikkhū bhaṇḍanakārakā kalahakārakā vivādakārakā bhassakārakā saṅghe adhikaraṇakārakā vassaṁ upagatā mayaṁ tesaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ vassaṁ vutthānaṁ pavāraṇāya pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapessāmāti kathaṁ nu kho amhehi paṭipajjitabbanti.

The monks heard that, “Those other monks near us, they say—makers of quarrels, strife, disputes, dissension, and issues in the Saṅgha—have entered the Rains (thinking,) ‘When those monks have completed the Rains, at their Invitation, we will cancel their invitations.’ What should we do?”

bhagavato etamatthaṁ ārocesuṁ.

They reported the matter to the Blessed One.

(Mv.IV.17.2) idha pana bhikkhave sambahulā sandiṭṭhā sambhattā bhikkhū aññatarasmiṁ āvāse vassaṁ upagacchanti.

“Monks, there is the case where several monks, close friends, enter the Rains at a certain monastery.

tesaṁ sāmantā aññe bhikkhū bhaṇḍanakārakā kalahakārakā vivādakārakā bhassakārakā saṅghe adhikaraṇakārakā vassaṁ upagacchanti mayaṁ tesaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ vassaṁ vutthānaṁ pavāraṇāya pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapessāmāti.

“Near to them, other monks—makers of quarrels, strife, disputes, dissension, and issues in the Saṅgha—enter the Rains, (thinking,) “When those monks have completed the Rains, at their Invitation, we will cancel their invitations.”

anujānāmi bhikkhave tehi bhikkhūhi dve tayo uposathe cātuddasike kātuṁ kathaṁ mayaṁ tehi bhikkhūhi paṭhamataraṁ pavāreyyāmāti.

“Monks, I allow that those monks perform two or three Uposathas on the fourteenth, (thinking,) ‘How could we invite before those (other) monks?’

te ce bhikkhave bhikkhū bhaṇḍanakārakā kalahakārakā vivādakārakā bhassakārakā saṅghe adhikaraṇakārakā āvāsaṁ āgacchanti tehi bhikkhave āvāsikehi bhikkhūhi lahuṁ lahuṁ sannipatitvā pavāretabbaṁ pavāretvā vattabbā pavāritā kho mayaṁ āvuso yathā āyasmanto maññanti tathā karontūti.

“If those monks—makers of quarrels, strife, disputes, dissension, and issues in the Saṅgha—come to the residence, the resident monks should quickly gather and invite. Having invited, they should say, ‘Friends, we have invited. May the venerable ones do what they think (is appropriate).’

(Mv.IV.17.3) te ce bhikkhave bhikkhū bhaṇḍanakārakā kalahakārakā vivādakārakā bhassakārakā saṅghe adhikaraṇakārakā asaṁvihitā taṁ āvāsaṁ āgacchanti tehi bhikkhave āvāsikehi bhikkhūhi āsanaṁ paññāpetabbaṁ pādodakaṁ pādapīṭhaṁ pādakathalikaṁ upanikkhipitabbaṁ paccuggantvā pattacīvaraṁ paṭiggahetabbaṁ pānīyena pucchitabbā.

“If those monks—makers of quarrels, strife, disputes, dissension, and issues in the Saṅgha—come to the residence unannounced, the resident monks should lay out seats, put out washing water for the feet, a foot stand, and a pebble foot wiper. They should go out to meet them, receive their bowls and robes, and ask them if they want drinking water.

tesaṁ vikkhitvā nissīmaṁ gantvā pavāretabbaṁ.

Having diverted their attention, they should go outside the territory and invite.

tesaṁ vikkhitvāti “kilantattha muhuttaṁ vissamathā”tiādinā nayena sammohaṁ katvāti attho.

“Having diverted their attention”: This means tricking them in this way: “You’re tired. Rest for a moment.”

pavāretvā vattabbā pavāritā kho mayaṁ āvuso yathā āyasmanto maññanti tathā karontūti.

“Having invited, they should say, ‘Friends, we have invited. May the venerable ones do what they think (is appropriate).’

(Mv.IV.17.4) evañcetaṁ labhetha iccetaṁ kusalaṁ no ce labhetha āvāsikena bhikkhunā byattena paṭibalena āvāsikā bhikkhū ñāpetabbā

“If that works, well and good. If not, an experienced and competent resident monk should inform the (other) resident monks,

suṇantu me āyasmanto āvāsikā yadāyasmantānaṁ pattakallaṁ idāni uposathaṁ kareyyāma pātimokkhaṁ uddiseyyāma āgame kāḷe pavāreyyāmāti.

“‘May the resident venerable ones listen to me. If the venerable ones are ready, we will perform the Uposatha; recite the Pāṭimokkha. On the coming dark [new] (moon) we will invite.’

te ce bhikkhave bhikkhū bhaṇḍanakārakā kalahakārakā vivādakārakā bhassakārakā saṅghe adhikaraṇakārakā te bhikkhū evaṁ vadeyyuṁ sādhu āvuso idāneva no pavārethāti.

“If those monks—makers of quarrels, strife, disputes, dissension, and issues in the Saṅgha—say to the monks, ‘It would be good, friends, if you were to invite right now, with us,’

te evamassu vacanīyā anissarā kho tumhe āvuso amhākaṁ pavāraṇāya na tāva mayaṁ pavāressāmāti.

“then they should be told, ‘Friends, you’re not in charge of our Invitation. We’re not going to invite yet.’

(Mv.IV.17.5) te ce bhikkhave bhikkhū bhaṇḍanakārakā kalahakārakā vivādakārakā bhassakārakā saṅghe adhikaraṇakārakā taṁ kāḷaṁ anuvaseyyuṁ āvāsikena bhikkhunā byattena paṭibalena āvāsikā bhikkhū ñāpetabbā

“If those monks—makers of quarrels, strife, disputes, dissension, and issues in the Saṅgha—stay1 until the coming dark [new] moon, an experienced and competent resident monk should inform the (other) resident monks,

1. Apparently this means that they delay their Invitation as well and stay in the area, at their own monastery, not that they stay with the first group of monks for the whole two weeks.

suṇantu me āyasmanto āvāsikā yadāyasmantānaṁ pattakallaṁ idāni uposathaṁ kareyyāma pātimokkhaṁ uddiseyyāma āgame juṇhe pavāreyyāmāti.

“‘May the resident venerable ones listen to me. If we are ready, we will perform the Uposatha; recite the Pāṭimokkha. On the coming bright [full] moon we will invite.’

te ce bhikkhave bhikkhū bhaṇḍanakārakā kalahakārakā vivādakārakā bhassakārakā saṅghe adhikaraṇakārakā te bhikkhū evaṁ vadeyyuṁ sādhu āvuso idāneva no pavārethāti.

“If those monks—makers of quarrels, strife, disputes, dissension, and issues in the Saṅgha—say to the monks, ‘It would be good, friends, if you were to invite right now, with us,’

te evamassu vacanīyā anissarā kho tumhe āvuso amhākaṁ pavāraṇāya na tāva mayaṁ pavāressāmāti.

“then they should be told, ‘Friends, you’re not in charge of our Invitation. We’re not going to invite yet.’

(Mv.IV.17.6) te ce bhikkhave bhikkhū bhaṇḍanakārakā kalahakārakā vivādakārakā bhassakārakā saṅghe adhikaraṇakārakā tampi juṇhaṁ anuvaseyyuṁ tehi bhikkhave bhikkhūhi sabbeheva āgame juṇhe komudiyā cātumāsiniyā akāmā pavāretabbaṁ.

“If those monks—makers of quarrels, strife, disputes, dissension, and issues in the Saṅgha—stay even until the coming bright [full] moon, then all should invite on the coming bright moon, of the “water-lily” fourth month, even if they don’t want to. [BMC]

(Mv.IV.17.7) tehi ce bhikkhave bhikkhūhi pavāriyamāne gilāno agilānassa pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapeti so evamassa vacanīyo āyasmā kho gilāno gilāno ca ananuyogakkhamo vutto bhagavatā āgamehi āvuso yāva arogo hosi arogo ākaṅkhamāno codessasīti.

“Monks, if, as the monks are inviting, a sick monk cancels the invitation of a monk who is not sick, he should be told, ‘The venerable one is sick. It has been said by the Blessed One that one who is sick isn’t up to arguing a case. Wait, friend, until you are well. Being well, if you want to, you can charge him.’

evañca vuccamāno codeti anādariye pācittiyaṁ.

“And if, being told that, he still makes the charge out of disrespect, a pācittiya offense (Pc 54) [BMC].

(Mv.IV.17.8) tehi ce bhikkhave bhikkhūhi pavāriyamāne agilāno gilānassa pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapeti so evamassa vacanīyo ayaṁ kho āvuso bhikkhu gilāno gilāno ca ananuyogakkhamo vutto bhagavatā āgamehi āvuso yāvāyaṁ bhikkhu arogo hoti arogaṁ ākaṅkhamāno codessasīti.

“Monks, if, as the monks are inviting, a monk who is not sick cancels the invitation of a sick monk, he should be told, ‘Friend, this monk is sick. It has been said by the Blessed One that one who is sick isn’t up to arguing a case. Wait, friend, until this monk is well. (When he is) well, if you want to, you can charge him.’

evañce vuccamāno codeti anādariye pācittiyaṁ.

“If, being told that, he still makes the charge out of disrespect, a pācittiya offense (Pc 54).

(Mv.IV.17.9) tehi ce bhikkhave bhikkhūhi pavāriyamāne gilāno gilānassa pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapeti so evamassa vacanīyo āyasmantā kho gilānā gilāno ca ananuyogakkhamo vutto bhagavatā āgamehi āvuso yāva arogā hotha arogo arogaṁ ākaṅkhamāno codessasīti.

“Monks, if, as the monks are inviting, a sick monk cancels the invitation of (another) sick monk, he should be told, ‘The venerable ones are sick. It has been said by the Blessed One that one who is sick isn’t up to debating. Wait, friend, until you are (both) well. (When you are both) well, if you want to, you can charge him.’

(Mv.IV.17.10) evañce vuccamāno codeti anādariye pācittiyaṁ.

“If, being told that, he still makes the charge out of disrespect, a pācittiya offense (Pc 54).

tehi ce bhikkhave bhikkhūhi pavāriyamāne agilāno agilānassa pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapeti.

“Monks, if, as the monks are inviting, a monk who is not sick cancels the invitation of (another) monk who is not sick,

ubho saṅghena samanuyuñjitvā samanuggāhitvā yathādhammaṁ kārāpetvā saṅghena pavāretabbanti.

“then the Saṅgha should cross-question them both and investigate, then deal with them in line with the rule. Then the Saṅgha should invite.”

145. pavāraṇāsaṅgaho (Mv.IV.18.1)

The Invitation-delay [BMC: 1 2]

[251] tena kho pana samayena sambahulā sandiṭṭhā sambhattā bhikkhū kosalesu janapadesu aññatarasmiṁ āvāse vassaṁ upagacchiṁsu.

Now on that occasion several monks, close friends who were often seen together and ate together, entered the Rains at a certain residence in the Kosalan countryside.

tesaṁ samaggānaṁ sammodamānānaṁ avivadamānānaṁ viharataṁ aññataro phāsuvihāro adhigato hoti.

While they were living together in unity, courteously, without dispute, a certain level of comfort was achieved.

athakho tesaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ etadahosi amhākaṁ kho samaggānaṁ sammodamānānaṁ avivadamānānaṁ viharataṁ aññataro phāsuvihāro adhigato

Then the thought occurred to them, “While we have been living together in unity, courteously, without dispute, a certain level of comfort has been achieved.

sace mayaṁ idāni pavāressāma siyāpi bhikkhū pavāretvā cārikaṁ pakkameyyuṁ evaṁ mayaṁ imamhā phāsuvihārā paribāhirā bhavissāma kathaṁ nu kho amhehi paṭipajjitabbanti.

“If we were to invite now, and if there are monks who, having invited, would leave to go wandering, we would be deprived of our level of comfort. What should we do?”

bhagavato etamatthaṁ ārocesuṁ.

They reported the matter to the Blessed One.

(Mv.IV.18.2) idha pana bhikkhave sambahulā sandiṭṭhā sambhattā bhikkhū aññatarasmiṁ āvāse vassaṁ upagacchanti.

“Monks, there is the case where several monks, close friends who are often seen together and eat together, enter the Rains at a certain residence.

tesaṁ samaggānaṁ sammodamānānaṁ avivadamānānaṁ viharataṁ aññataro phāsuvihāro adhigato hoti.

While they are living together in unity, courteously, without dispute, a certain level of comfort is achieved.

tatra ce bhikkhūnaṁ evaṁ hoti amhākaṁ kho samaggānaṁ sammodamānānaṁ avivadamānānaṁ viharataṁ aññataro phāsuvihāro adhigato sace mayaṁ idāni pavāressāma siyāpi bhikkhū pavāretvā cārikaṁ pakkameyyuṁ evaṁ mayaṁ imamhā phāsuvihārā paribāhirā bhavissāmāti.

“If the thought should occur to them, ‘While we have been living together in unity, courteously, without dispute, a certain level of comfort has been achieved. If we were to invite now, and if there are monks who, having invited, would leave to go wandering, we would be deprived of our level of comfort,’

anujānāmi bhikkhave tehi bhikkhūhi pavāraṇāsaṅgahaṁ kātuṁ.

“then I allow that those monks make an Invitation-delay.

(Mv.IV.18.3) evañca pana bhikkhave kātabbo.

“And, monks, it should be made like this:

sabbeheva ekajjhaṁ sannipatitabbaṁ.

“The entire Saṅgha should gather.

sannipatitvā byattena bhikkhunā paṭibalena saṅgho ñāpetabbo

“When they have gathered, an experienced and competent monk should inform the Saṅgha:

suṇātu me bhante saṅgho amhākaṁ samaggānaṁ sammodamānānaṁ avivadamānānaṁ viharataṁ aññataro phāsuvihāro adhigato.

“‘Venerable sirs, may the Saṅgha listen to me. While we have been living together in unity, courteously, without dispute, a certain level of comfort has been achieved.

sace mayaṁ idāni pavāressāma siyāpi bhikkhū pavāretvā cārikaṁ pakkameyyuṁ evaṁ mayaṁ imamhā phāsuvihārā paribāhirā bhavissāma.

“‘If we were to invite now, and if there are monks who, having invited, would leave to go wandering, we would be deprived of our level of comfort.

yadi saṅghassa pattakallaṁ saṅgho pavāraṇāsaṅgahaṁ kareyya idāni uposathaṁ kareyya pātimokkhaṁ uddiseyya āgame komudiyā cātumāsiniyā pavāreyya.

“‘If the Saṅgha is ready, it should make an Invitation-delay so that it might now perform the Uposatha and recite the Pāṭimokkha, and then invite (on the full moon) of the coming “water-lily” fourth month.

esā ñatti.

“‘This is the motion.

(Mv.IV.18.4) suṇātu me bhante saṅgho amhākaṁ samaggānaṁ sammodamānānaṁ avivadamānānaṁ viharataṁ aññataro phāsuvihāro adhigato.

“‘Venerable sirs, may the Saṅgha listen to me. While we have been living together in unity, courteously, without dispute, a certain level of comfort has been achieved.

sace mayaṁ idāni pavāressāma siyāpi bhikkhū pavāretvā cārikaṁ pakkameyyuṁ evaṁ mayaṁ imamhā phāsuvihārā paribāhirā bhavissāma.

“‘If we were to invite now, and if there are monks who, having invited, would leave to go wandering, we would be deprived of our level of comfort.

saṅgho pavāraṇāsaṅgahaṁ karoti idāni uposathaṁ karissati pātimokkhaṁ uddisissati āgame komudiyā cātumāsiniyā pavāressati.

“‘The Saṅgha is making an Invitation-delay so that it will now perform the Uposatha and recite the Pāṭimokkha, and then invite (on the full moon) of the coming “water-lily” fourth month.

yassāyasmato khamati pavāraṇāsaṅgahassa karaṇaṁ idāni uposathaṁ karissati pātimokkhaṁ uddisissati āgame komudiyā cātumāsiniyā pavāressati so tuṇhassa yassa nakkhamati so bhāseyya.

“‘He to whom the making of an Invitation-delay—so that (the Saṅgha) will now perform the Uposatha and recite the Pāṭimokkha, and then invite when the “water-lily” fourth month arrives—is agreeable should remain silent. He to whom it is not agreeable should speak.

kato saṅghena pavāraṇāsaṅgaho idāni uposathaṁ karissati pātimokkhaṁ uddisissati āgame komudiyā cātumāsiniyā pavāressati.

“‘An Invitation-delay has been made by the Saṅgha so that it will now perform the Uposatha and recite the Pāṭimokkha, and then invite (on the full moon) of the coming “water-lily” fourth month.

khamati saṅghassa tasmā tuṇhī.

“‘This is agreeable to the Saṅgha, therefore it is silent.

evametaṁ dhārayāmīti.

“‘Thus do I hold it.’

(Mv.IV.18.5) tehi ce bhikkhave bhikkhūhi kate pavāraṇāsaṅgahe aññataro bhikkhu evaṁ vadeyya icchāmahaṁ āvuso janapadacārikaṁ pakkamituṁ atthi me janapade karaṇīyanti.

“If, when those monks have made an Invitation-delay, a certain monk should say, ‘Friends, I want to set out on a wandering tour of the countryside. I have business in the countryside,’

so evamassa vacanīyo sādhu āvuso pavāretvā gacchāhīti.

“then he should be told, ‘Friend, it would be good if you invited and then went.’

so ce bhikkhave bhikkhu pavārayamāno aññatarassa bhikkhuno pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapeti so evamassa vacanīyo anissaro kho me tvaṁ āvuso pavāraṇāya na tāvāhaṁ pavāressāmīti.

“Monks, if, as that monk is inviting, he cancels the Invitation of a certain monk, then he should be told, ‘Friend, you’re not in charge of my Invitation. I won’t invite yet.’

tassa ce bhikkhave bhikkhuno pavārayamānassa aññataro bhikkhu tassa bhikkhuno pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapeti ubho saṅghena samanuyuñjitvā samanuggāhitvā yathādhammaṁ kārāpetabbā.

“Monks, if, as that monk is inviting, a certain monk cancels his Invitation, then the Saṅgha should cross-question them both and investigate, then deal with them in line with the rule.

(Mv.IV.18.6) so ce bhikkhave bhikkhu janapade taṁ karaṇīyaṁ tīretvā punadeva antokomudiyā cātumāsiniyā taṁ āvāsaṁ āgacchati tehi ce bhikkhave bhikkhūhi pavāriyamāne aññataro bhikkhu tassa bhikkhuno pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapeti so evamassa vacanīyo anissaro kho me tvaṁ āvuso pavāraṇāya pavārito ahanti.

“If that monk should conclude his business in the countryside and return to the residence within the “water-lily” fourth month, and if, as the monks are inviting, a certain monk cancels his Invitation, he should be told, ‘Friend, you’re not in charge of my Invitation. I’ve (already) invited.’

tehi ce bhikkhave bhikkhūhi pavāriyamāne so bhikkhu aññatarassa bhikkhuno pavāraṇaṁ ṭhapeti. ubho saṅghena samanuyuñjitvā samanuggāhitvā yathādhammaṁ kārāpetvā saṅghena pavāretabbanti.

“If, as the monks are inviting, he cancels the Invitation of a certain monk, then the Saṅgha should cross-question them both and investigate, then deal with them in line with the rule1. Then the Saṅgha should invite.”

1. In other words, he gives up his right to suspend another monk’s invitation unless he makes it back in time. The other monks can still suspend his, but they have to do it when he invites—not when he gets back and they are inviting.

pavāraṇākkhandhakaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ catutthaṁ.

The Invitation Khandhaka, the fourth, is finished.

imamhi khandhake vatthu chacattāḷīsa.

In this khandhaka there are 46 cases.

tassuddānaṁ

Mnemonic Verses

[252] vassaṁ vutthā kosalesu

āgamma satthu dassanaṁ

aphāsupasusaṁvāsaṁ

aññamaññānulomatā

Having completed the Rains

among the Kosalans,

they came to see the Teacher.

An uncomfortable cattle-like affiliation,

mutual conformity.

pavārentāsane dve ca

kammagilānañātakā

rājā corā ca dhuttā ca

bhikkhupaccatthikā tathā

They invited, on their seats, and two,

transactions, a sick monk, relatives,

kings, thieves, mischief-makers,

and likewise opponents of the monks.

pañca catutayo dveko

āpanno vematī sarī

sabbo saṅgho vematiko

bahusamā ca thokikā

Five, four, three, two, one,

fallen (into an offense), in doubt,

he remembered,

the entire Saṅgha, in doubt,

more, equal, fewer.

āvāsikā catuddassā

liṅgasaṁvāsakā ubho

gantabbaṁ na nisinnāya

chandadāne pavāraṇā

The residents on the fourteenth,

traces, common affiliation, both,

one should go, not with one sitting,

the Invitation when consent has been given.

sañcarehi [ME: savarehi] khepitā megho

antarā ca pavāraṇā

Because of Savaras, it was spent, a cloud,

obstructions, and the Invitation.

na karonti puramhākaṁ

aṭṭhapitā ca bhikkhuno

kimhi cāti [ME: vāti] katamañca

diṭṭhena sutasaṅkāya

They didn’t give (leave);

before (they canceled) ours,

not (properly) canceled, a monk’s,

why? and which?

on the basis of what is

seen, heard, suspected.

codako cuditako ca

thullavatthu ca bhaṇḍanaṁ

pavāraṇassa saṅgaho

anissaro pavārayeti.

One making a charge, one charged,

a thullaccaya, a matter, a quarrel,

the delay of the Invitation,

not in charge; it should invite.